Third Veientine War, 405-396 B.C.

Third Veientine War, 405-396 B.C.



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Third Veientine War, 405-396 B.C.

The Third Veientine War (405-396 B.C.) saw the Roman Republic finally capture and destroy their closest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii, after a siege that lasted for ten years, making them the most powerful state in central Italy. Here we will follow Livy's account of the war, looking at those events that took place away from Veii, while the siege of Veii itself will be examined in a separate article.

In 407 B.C. a truce with Veii expired. At this point the Romans were involved in active wars with the Volscians and the Aequi, but they still decided to send ambassadors to Veii to demand satisfaction for unspecified misdeeds performed by Veii's senate. The ambassadors never reached Veii, turning back after the Veientines requested a delay of a year because of internal problems.

In 406 the ambassadors reached Veii, but were told to return to Rome or suffer the fate inflicted on their predecessors by Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii during the Second Veientine War, who ordered the execution of four Roman ambassadors. The Senate responded by proposing war, but the tribunes of the plebs led a campaign against this on the grounds that there were too many wars already going on. The proposal for war with Veii was dropped after it became clear that the Roman People would vote against it, and instead the Romans captured the town of Anxur from the Volscians. After this victory the Senate announced that Roman soldiers would receive pay from the public purse for the first time, instead of serving at their own cost.

With pay on offer the Roman People voted in favour of war with Veii in 405 B.C., and the new consular tribunes for that year led a largely volunteer army to besiege the city. Livy records a meeting of the Etruscan National Council at the Fanes of Voltumna, in which the other Etruscan states refused to aid Veii. This probably reflects a misunderstanding on Livy's part about the relationship between the various Etruscan cities, which were enemies as often as allies.

In 404 the Romans were distracted by the war against the Volscians, winning a pitched battle between Ferentinum and Ecetrae and then taking Artena by siege. 403 was distinguished by constitutional novelties in both cities. The Romans elected eight Consular Tribunes, more than in any previous year, while the Veientines elected a king, a move that apparently annoyed the other Etruscan cities, although according to Livy Veii had a king during the Second war.

In 402 Auxur fell to the Volscians. The garrison was under strength, and most of the troops were away from the fortifications, either in the fields or attempting to buy food. Volscian traders were allowed inside the town in large numbers, and overwhelmed the few Romans soldiers left inside. This year also saw the war expand when the Capenates and Faliscans, two Latin speaking people living to the north of Veii, decided to support the Veientines, worried that the Romans would turn on them if Veii fell. The Romans suffered a serious defeat in the siege lines around Veii, and for the rest of the war were forced to maintain at least three armies.

In 401 the Romans were faced with four separate campaigns. M. Furius was given command of the army operating against the Faliscans and Cnaeus Comelius the army operating against the Capenae. Both men conducted successful raids into enemy territory. In contrast Cnaeus Comelius, who was given the task of retaking Anxur, was unable to take the town by storm and had to begin a regular siege. This ended in 400 when the town was captured due to the laxity of the guards during a festival.

In 399 a Roman army raided into Capenae, catching a retreating Capenate and Faliscan army on its way back north after a defeat outside Veii. The raids continued in 398, when L. Valerius Potitus attacked the Falerii and M. Furius Camillus the Capenae.

Livy's account of the war now includes a supernatural intervention. The level of water in the Alban Lake began to rise for no apparent reason. A captured Veientine soothsayer claimed that this was the doom of his city - if the Romans drained the lake in the right way, then Veii must fall. His opinion wasn't yet taken seriously, so the Romans dispatched an embassy to Delphi to ask the oracle for advice. This part of the story at least is true, for after the war the Romans dedicated a golden bowl to the Oracle, and its base remained on display well into better recorded periods. The Oracle's pronouncement reached Rome in the following year, and matched that of the soothsayer. The Romans built ditches to drain the lake, and also dismissed the senior magistrates for the year, replacing them with a series of temporary commanders until the elections could be held for 397.

During 397 the Romans were involved in six separate campaigns. Anxur was being besieged by the Volsci and Labici by the Aequi. The siege of Veii continued, and raids continued against Falerii and Capenae. Seeing this the Tarquinii, another major Etruscan city, decided to raid Roman territory believing that the Romans would be too distracted to punish them. They were mistaken. An army under A. Postumius and L. Julius caught them on their way home, recovering most of their booty.

A more ominous note slips into Livy's account of the Etruscan council in this year. Once again the Etruscans refused to help Veii, but whereas at the start of the war they had refused because Veii had not consulted them before beginning the conflict, now they refused because they were being threatened by a new threat - the Gauls.

The war finally came to an end in 396. Two of the consular tribunes for the year - L. Titinius and Cnaeus Genucius - led an army against the Faliscans and Capenates. This army was ambushed and suffered a heavy defeat in which Genucius was killed and Titinius was lucky to escape. News of this defeat almost caused a second disaster, when rumours of an approaching enemy army reached the Roman camp. Large numbers of soldiers wanted to return to Rome, and were only prevented from doing some with some difficulty. In response the Romans appointed M. Furius Camillus as Dictator. He raised a larger army, with Latin and Hernican components mentioned for the first time. This new army defeated the Faliscans and Capenates in a pitched battle, and then successfully concluded the siege of Veii, capturing the city (he was soon exiled for his role in the distribution of the spoils from Veii, despite asking the Senate to decide what to do).

In the aftermath of the fall of Veii both the Volscians and Aequi sued for peace, which was granted to them. Both wars were soon resumed, but this gap gave the Romans time to defeat the Capenates (395) and Falerii (394). Veii's former territory became part of the ager Romanus, the lands directly controlled by Rome, almost doubling their size. Even before this Roman was the biggest of the Latin cities. Now she dominated them.

Rome's triumph was short-lived. Only six years later Brennus and his Gauls defeated a Roman army on the Allia and sacked the city, an event that scarred the Roman psyche for centuries.

Roman Conquests: Italy, Ross Cowan. A look at the Roman conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the series of wars that saw Rome transformed from a small city state in central Italy into a power that was on the verge of conquering the ancient Mediterranean world. A lack of contemporary sources makes this a difficult period to write about, but Cowan has produced a convincing narrative without ignoring some of the complexity.

[read full review]


Livy , History of Rome 5

a.u.c. 358 Romani fieret. Ea quoque conlatio plebis animos 12 a Camillo alienavit. Inter haec pacificatum legati a Volscis et Aequis venerunt, impetrataque pax, magis ut fessa tam diutino bello adquiesceret civitas quam quod digni peterent.

a.u.c. 359 XXIV. Veiis captis sex tribunos militum consulari potestate insequens annus habuit, duos P. Cornelios, Cossum et Scipionem, M. Valerium Maximum iterum K. Fabium Ambustum tertium 1 L. Furium Medullinum 2 quintum Q. Servilium tertium. Corneliis Faliscum bellum, Valerio ac Servilio Capenas sorte evenit. Ab iis non urbes vi aut operibus temptatae, sed ager est depopulatus praedaeque rerum agrestium actae nulla felix arbor, nihil frugiferum in agro 3 relictum. Ea clades Capenatem populum subegit pax petentibus data in Faliscis bellum restabat.

4 Romae interim multiplex seditio erat, cuius leniendae causa coloniam in Volscos, quo tria milia civium Romanorum scriberentur, deducendam censuerant, triumvirique ad id creati terna iugera et septunces 5 viritim diviserant. Ea largitio sperni coepta, quia spei maioris avertendae solacium obiectum censebant: cur enim relegari plebem in Volscos, cum pulcherrima urbs Veii agerque Veientanus in conspectu 6 sit, uberior ampliorque Romano agro? Urbem


What was significant about the Roman sack of Veii?

Veii had engaged the Romans in a long and inconclusive war during which it had often been under siege. Relying on the superior size of the Roman army, Camillus attacked the city on all sides. The intent of Camillus' attack was to distract the Veientines from the mine by forcing their soldiers to defend the walls.

Additionally, when did Rome conquer Veii? Siege of Veii, 405-396 B.C. The ten year long siege of Veii (405-396 B.C.) was the main event of the Third Veientine War and saw the Romans finally conquer their nearest rival, the Etruscan city of Veii.

Hereof, at what point in Roman history was the consulship opened to plebeians?

However, the law also required the election of at least one Plebeian Consul each year. The opening of the Consulship to the Plebeians was probably the cause behind the concession of 366 BC, in which the Praetorship and Curule Aedileship were both created, but opened only to Patricians.

What was prorogation quizlet?

Prorogation is the extension of term of office often due to involvement in a project. It served to combat the difficulty encountered by such short terms, which forced them to campaign and due their job simultaneously. Applied to consuls and praetors, just added "pro" prefix in front.


History of the Tiber

In antiquity, ten bridges were built over the Tiber: eight spanned the main channel while two permitted access to the island there was a shrine to Venus on the island. Mansions lined the riverside, and gardens leading to the river provided Rome with fresh fruits and vegetables. The Tiber was also a major thoroughfare for the Mediterranean trade of oil, wine, and wheat.

The Tiber was an important military focus for hundreds of years. During the third century BCE, Ostia (a town on the Tiber) became a naval base for the Punic Wars. In the 5th century BCE, the Second Veientine War was fought over control of a crossing of the Tiber. The disputed crossing was at Fidenae, five miles upstream from Rome.

Attempts to tame the Tiber's floods were unsuccessful in classical times. While today the river is confined between high walls, during Roman times it regularly flooded.


Book VI

possessed any vigour, to whom also he administered b.c. 389 the oath and mustered them into centuries.

Having enrolled the army and equipped it, he divided it into three parts. One division he stationed in the Veientine district to confront Etruria a second he ordered to encamp before the City. These divisions were put under the command of military tribunes, Aulus Manlius for the home troops, Lucius Aemilius for those which were being dispatched against the Etruscans. The third division he led himself against the Volsci, and not far from Lanuvium— ad Mecium the place is called—advanced to attack their camp. The enemy had gone to war from a feeling of contempt for the Romans, believing that their fighting strength had been nearly wiped out by the Gauls, but merely on hearing that Camillus was their general, they were so terrified that they protected themselves with a rampart and the rampart with a barricade of logs, that the Romans might nowhere be able to penetrate to their defences. On perceiving this, Camillus ordered his men to throw fire on the barrier. It so happened that there was a high wind blowing towards the enemy, which not only caused the blaze to open a path, but what with the flames making towards the camp, and the heat and smoke and the crackling of the green wood, so alarmed the enemy, that the Roman soldiers experienced less difficulty in scaling the fortifications of the Volscian camp than they had met with in crossing the burnt barricade. Having routed and slain his enemies and taken their camp by assault, the dictator gave the booty to his soldiers, an act which, coming unexpectedly from a commander who


Bernal Díaz’s Graphic Account Of The Human Sacrifice Of His Friends

Bernal Díaz del Castillo was an experienced conquistador who served on several Spanish voyages around Yucatan and Mexico, including the expedition of Hernan Cortes that toppled the Aztec Empire. Unhappy with how the scholars and court historians portrayed and framed Cortes’ expedition, Bernal Díaz determined to write his own account of events, based on his intimate personal knowledge.

Of the many horrific sights seen by Bernal Díaz during his gruesome war against the Aztecs, few stood out in his mind like what occurred during the siege of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, in 1521. It was a resilient and heavily fortified city, able to withstand the muskets, crossbows and cannons of Hernan Cortes for months on end. The battle for the city was a horrible scene of urban combat, with near-daily skirmishes occurring at the capital’s main causeways and surrounding buildings. As the siege went on, the conquistadors and their native allies slowly pressed inward into the city, tearing down structures as they went and filling in canals so as to not be flanked by Aztecs in canoes.

Both sides used psychological warfare to great effect during the war. Spaniards used the strangeness of their horses, armor and firearms to unnerve their enemies, and encouraged tales among the natives that they were gods or other supernatural entities. On the other side, the Aztecs made great use of sound, stealth and gruesome visuals, along with relentless waves of aggression, to get into the heads of the Spaniards and demoralize the besiegers. Unfortunately, a poor decision by Hernan Cortes to commit to an unwise assault deep into the city (without waiting for buildings to be demolished or canals to be filled) gave the Aztec forces an opportunity to launch perhaps the most impactful instance of psychological warfare in the siege.

During the aforementioned unwise push by Cortes’ forces into the interior of the city, the conquistadors allowed themselves to be lured into a chokepoint where their only escape was a narrow, congested bridge. After drawing the besiegers into this bottleneck, the Aztecs renewed their attack with a vengeance. They flanked Cortes’ personal force with warriors ferried in from the canal and dealt a deadly blow to the conquistador leader’s force. Hernan Cortes was wounded and forced to retreat, but not before many of his troops were captured and killed. According to Cortes’ own letter to his liege, between 30-40 European conquistadors were killed in the fray, as well as over 1,000 of his allied native reinforcements. Bernal Díaz added to the statistics, claiming that between 62-66 conquistadors had been captured alive during the brawl.

While defeat in battle was demoralizing in itself, what happened next was even worse. Cortes wrote of the shocking next step, saying:

“Immediately after their victory, in order to strike terror into the alguazil mayor and Pedro de Alvarado, the enemy carried all the Spaniards both living and dead, whom they had taken to the Tlatelulco, which is the market-place, and in the lofty towers that are situated there they sacrificed them naked, opening their breasts and taking our their hearts to offer them to the idols. This was seen by the Spaniards of Alvarado’s division from where they were fighting, and from the whiteness of the naked bodies, which they saw sacrificed they knew them to be Christians” (Hernan Cortes’ Third Letter to Charles V, 298-299).

Bernal Díaz del Castillo wrote a much more emotional and descriptive account of the sacrifices, doing a better job to re-create the sights and sounds of that day. He wrote:

“The dismal drum of Huichilobos sounded again, accompanied by conches, horns and trumpet-like instruments. It was a terrifying sound, and when we looked at the tall cue from which it came we saw our comrades who had been captured in Cortes’ defeat being dragged up the steps to be sacrificed. When they had hauled them up to a small platform in front of the shrine where they kept their accursed idols we saw them put plumes on the heads of many of them and they made them dance with a sort of fan in front of Huichilobos. Then after they had danced the papas laid them down on their backs on some narrow stones of sacrifice and, cutting open their chests, drew out their palpitating hearts which they offered to the idols before them” (Bernal Díaz, The Conquest of New Spain, vol. II, chapter 152).

Due to the ample number of Spaniards who were captured, the Aztecs were able to keep the string of sacrificial ceremonies going for a grisly ten consecutive days. Additionally, the bodies of the sacrificial victims were mutilated and grisly hunks of the human remains were tossed into the Spanish camps. Bernal Díaz and other conquistadors also came to believe that cannibalism occurred after the sacrifices. On the psychological toll of all of this, Bernal Díaz wrote:

“I must say that when I saw my comrades dragged up each day to the altar, and their chests struck open and their palpitating hearts drawn out, and when I saw the arms and legs of these sixty two men cut off and eaten, I feared that one day or another they would do the same to me. Twice already they had laid hands on me to drag me off, but it pleased God that I should escape from their clutches. When I remembered their hideous deaths, and the proverb that the little pitcher goes many times to the fountain, and so on, I came to fear death more than ever in the past” (The Conquest of New Spain, vol. II, chapter 156).

Fortunately for the besieging conquistadors and the starving Aztec civilians in the city, the battle for Tenochtitlan would end before 1521 was over. Hernan Cortes’ forces continued pressing inward, leaving rubble in their wake, as they crept closer and closer to the Aztec emperor’s position. This emperor, Cuauhtémoc, was captured while trying to escape the city on August 13, 1521.

Written by C. Keith Hansley

Picture Attribution: (16th century illustration of a sacrifice from the Codex Magliabechiano, [Public Domain] via Creative Commons).


CHAPTER II
The Struggle for Democracy
508-264 B.C.

I. PATRICIANS AND PLEBS

WHO were the patricians? Livy 1 thought that Romulus had chosen a hundred clan heads of his tribe to help him establish Rome and be his council or senate. These men were later called patres&mdash&ldquofathers&rdquo&mdashand their descendants patricii&mdash&ldquoderived from the fathers.&rdquo Modem theory, which lives by nibbling at tradition, likes to explain the patricians as alien conquerors, perhaps Sabines, who invaded Latium and thereafter ruled the Latin plebs, or populace, as a lower caste. We may believe that they were composed of clans that through economic or military superiority had acquired the best lands, and had transformed their agricultural leadership into political mastery. These victorious clans&mdashthe Manlii, Valerii, Aemilii, Cornelii, Fabii, Horatii, Claudii, Julii, etc.&mdashcontinued for five centuries to give Rome generals, consuls, and laws. When the three original tribes united, their clan heads made a senate of some three hundred members. They were not such lords of comfort and luxury as their descendants often they put their own hands to the ax or the plow, lived vigorously on simple fare, and wore clothing spun in their homes. The plebs admired them even when it fought them, and applied to almost anything appertaining to them the term classicus, &ldquoclassical&rdquo&mdashi.e., of the highest rank or class. 2

Close to them in wealth, but far below them in political power, were the equites, or businessmen. Some were rich enough to win their way into the Senate, and formed there the second part of its constituent patres (et) conscripti&mdashi.e., &ldquopatricians and coinscribed men.&rdquo These two classes were called the &ldquoorders,&rdquo and were termed bom, &ldquothe good&rdquo for early civilizations thought of virtue in terms of rank, ability, and power virtus to the Roman meant manliness, the qualities that make a man (vir). Populus, &ldquopeople,&rdquo took in only these upper classes and originally it was in this sense that those famous initials were used&mdashS P Q R (Senatus Populusque Romanus)&mdashwhich were to mark so proudly a hundred thousand monuments. 3 Gradually, as democracy fought its way, the wordpopulus came to include the plebs.

This was the main body of Roman citizens. Some were artisans or tradesmen, some were freedmen, many were peasants perhaps, in the beginning, they were the conquered natives of the city&rsquos hills. Some were attached as clientes, or dependents, to an upper-class patronus in return for land and protection they helped him in peace, served under him in war, and voted in the assemblies as he told them.

Lowest of all were the slaves. Under the kings they had been costly and few, and therefore had been treated with consideration as valuable members of the family. In the sixth century B.C., when Rome began her career of conquest, war captives were sold in rising number to the aristocracy, the business classes, and even to plebeians and the status of the slave sank. Legally he could be dealt with as any other piece of property in theory, and according to the custom of the ancients, his life had been forfeited by defeat, and his enslavement was a merciful commutation of his death. Sometimes he managed his master&rsquos property, business, or funds sometimes he became a teacher, writer, actor, craftsman, laborer, tradesman, or artist, and paid his master part of his earnings. In this or other ways he might earn enough to buy his freedom and become a member of the plebs.

Contentment is as rare among men as it is natural among animals, and no form of government has ever satisfied its subjects. In this system the businessmen were piqued by their exclusion from the Senate, the richer plebeians by their exclusion from the equitesand the poorer plebeians resented their poverty, their political disabilities, and their liability to enslavement for debt. The law of the early Republic allowed a creditor to imprison a persistently defaulting debtor in a private dungeon, to sell him into slavery, even to kill him. Joint creditors might, said the law, cut up the corpse of the defaulting debtor and divide it among them&mdasha provision apparently never enforced. 4 The plebs demanded that these laws should be repealed and the burden of accrued debt reduced that the lands won in war and owned by the state should be distributed among the poor instead of being given, or sold at nominal prices, to the rich that plebeians should be eligible to the magistracies and the priesthoods, be permitted to intermarry with the &ldquoorders,&rdquo and have a representative of their class among the highest officials of the government. The Senate sought to frustrate the agitation by fomenting wars, but it was shocked to find its calls to the colors ignored. In 494 B.C. large masses of the plebs &ldquoseceded&rdquo to the Sacred Mount on the river Anio, three miles from the city, and declared that they would neither fight nor work for Rome until their demands had been met. The Senate used every diplomatic or religious device to lure the rebels back then, fearing that invasion from without might soon be added to revolt within, it agreed to a cancellation or reduction of debts, and the establishment of two tribunes and three aediles as the elected defenders of the plebs. The plebs returned, but only after taking a solemn oath to kill any man who should ever lay violent hands upon their representatives in the government. 5

This was the opening battle in a class war that ended only with the Republic that it destroyed. In 486 the consul Spurius Cassius proposed an allotment of captured lands among the poor the patricians accused him of currying popular favor with a view to making himself king, and had him killed this was probably not the first in a long line of agrarian proposals and Senatorial assassinations, culminating in the Gracchi and Caesar. In 439 Spurius Maelius, who during a famine had distributed wheat to the poor at a low price or free, was slain in his home by an emissary of the Senate, again on the charge of plotting to be king. 6 In 384 Marcus Manlius, who had heroically defended Rome against the Gauls, was put to death on the same charge after he had spent his fortune relieving insolvent debtors.

The next step in the climb of the plebs was a demand for definite, written, and secular laws. Heretofore the patrician priests had been the recorders and interpreters of the statutes, had kept their records secret, and had used their monopoly, and the ritual requirements of the law, as weapons against social change. After a long resistance to the new demands, the Senate (454) sent a commission of three patricians to Greece to study and report on the legislation of Solon and other lawmakers. When they returned, the Assembly (451) chose ten men&mdashdecemviri&mdashto formulate a new code, and gave them supreme governmental power in Rome for two years. This commission, under the presidency of a resolute reactionary, Appius Claudius, transformed the old customary law of Rome into the famous Twelve Tables, submitted them to the Assembly (which passed them with some changes), and displayed them in the Forum for all who would&mdashand could&mdashto read. This seemingly trivial event was epochal in Roman history and in the history of mankind it was the first written form of that legal structure which was to be Rome&rsquos most signal achievement and her greatest contribution to civilization.

When the second year of the commission&rsquos tenure&rsquo ended, it refused to restore the government to the consuls and tribunes, and continued to exercise supreme&mdashand ever more irresponsible&mdashauthority. Appius Claudius, says a story suspiciously like Lucretia&rsquos, was stirred with a passion for the beautiful plebeian Virginia, and, to secure her for his pleasure, had her declared a slave. Her father, Lucius Virginius, protested and when Claudius refused to hear him he slew his daughter, rushed out to his legion, and asked its aid in overthrowing the new despot. The enraged plebs once more &ldquoseceded&rdquo to the Sacred Mount, &ldquoimitating,&rdquo says Livy, &ldquothe moderation of their fathers by abstaining from all injury.&rdquo 7 Learning that the army was supporting the plebs, the patricians gathered in the senate house, deposed the Decemvirs, banished Claudius, restored the consulate, enlarged the tribunate, recognized the inviolability of the people&rsquos tribunes, and confirmed to the plebs the right of appealing to the Assembly of the Centuries from the decision of any magistrate. 8 Four years later (445) the tribune Caius Canuleius moved that the plebs should have the right of intermarriage with patricians, and that plebeians should be eligible to the consulate. The Senate, again faced by threats of war from vengeful neighbors, yielded the first point, and averted the second by agreeing that thereafter six of the tribunes chosen by the Centurial Assembly should have the authority of consuls. The plebs responded handsomely by choosing all these tribuni militum consulari potestate from the patrician class.

The long war with Veii (405-396), and the assault of the Gauls upon Rome, unified the nation for a time, and stilled internal strife. But victory and disaster alike left the plebeians destitute. While they fought for their country their lands were neglected or ravaged, and the interest on their debts mounted beyond possible repayment. The lenders took no excuse, but demanded principal and interest, or the imprisonment and enslavement of the borrowers. In 376 the tribunes Licinius and Sextius proposed that interest already paid should be deducted from the principal, the balance to be met in three years that no man should be allowed to own more than five hundred iugera (about three hundred acres) of land, or to use on them more than a certain proportion.of slaves to free laborers and that one of the two consuls should regularly be chosen from the plebs. For a decade the patricians resisted these proposals meanwhile, says Dio Cassius, &ldquothey stirred up war after war, that the people might be too occupied to agitate about the land.&rdquo 9 At last, threatened with a third secession, the Senate accepted the &ldquoLicinian laws,&rdquo and Camillus, leader of the conservatives, celebrated the reconciliation of the classes by building a stately Temple of Concord in the Forum.

It was a major step in the growth of Rome&rsquos limited democracy. From that moment the plebs progressed rapidly towards a formal equality with the &ldquoorders&rdquo in politics and law. In 356 a plebeian was made dictator for a year in 351 the censorship, in 337 the praetorship, and in 300 the priesthoods were opened to the plebs. Finally (287) the Senate agreed that the decisions of the Tribal Assembly should also have the force of law, even when contrary to the resolutions of the Senate. Since in this Assembly the patricians could easily be outvoted by the plebs, this lex Hortensiawas the capstone and triumph of Roman democracy.

Nevertheless, the power of the Senate soon recovered after these defeats. The demand for land was quieted by sending Romans as colonists to conquered soil. The cost of winning and holding office&mdashwhich was unpaid&mdashautomatically disqualified the poor. The richer plebeians, having secured political equality and opportunity, now co-operated with the patricians in checking radical legislation the poorer plebeians, shorn of financial means, ceased for two centuries to play a significant role in the affairs of Rome. Businessmen fell in with patrician policy because it gave them contracts for public works, openings for colonial and provincial exploitation, and commissions to collect taxes for the state. The Assembly of the Centuries, whose method of voting gave the aristocracy full control, continued to choose the magistrates, and therefore the Senate. The tribunes, dependent upon the support of rich plebeians, used their office as a conservative force. Every consul, even if chosen by the plebs, became by contagion a zealous conservative when, at the close of his year of office, he was received into the Senate for life. The Senate took the initiative in legislation, and custom sanctioned its authority far beyond the letter of the law. As foreign affairs became more important, the Senate&rsquos firm administration of them raised its prestige and power. When, in 264, Rome entered upon a century of war with Carthage for the mastery of the Mediterranean, it was the Senate that led the nation through every trial to victory and an imperiled and desperate people yielded without protest to its leadership and domination.


Main keywords of the article below: rome, history, ancient, highlights, timeline, events.

The term Ancient Rome refers to the city of Rome, which was located in central Italy and also to the empire it came to rule, which covered the entire Mediterranean basin and much of western Europe. [3] The rise and fall of Ancient Rome formed a crucial episode in the rise of Western civilization. [3] The civilization of Ancient Rome was rooted, directly or indirectly, in all these earlier culture. [3] Regal Period of ancient Rome from Founding to Birth of the Republic. [4] THE ROMAN EMPIRE INTERACTIVE DIAGRAM: Why were the Romans successful Empire builders? Roman Empire - Ancient Rome Government - SUPER! BBC - History: Romans Roman Empire: 509 BC-AD 1453 HWC, The Julio-Claudians and Roman Emperors - The Imperial Index - much more on specific Emperors available below in the section on the Emperors. [5] MISC. ROMAN SITES BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Death in Rome BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Gladiator: Dressed to Kill Game BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Housesteads Fort BBC GAME - Roman Sacrificial Blade - CDX The Amazing Ancient World - BRIDGES BETWEEN CULTURES Roma - Important Neighbors Secrets of the Dead. [5] Harry Sidebottom is a lecturer in ancient history at Lincoln College, Oxford, and author of the Warrior of Rome and Throne of the Caesars series of novels. [6]

Pantheon Rome Virtual Reality Image - Pantheon Piazza di Pietra, Rome Roman Forum - Ancient Rome: The Roman Forum Roman Baths - For more, check out the Daily Life section above. [5] ROMAN LAW Did you know? It was the custom in Ancient Rome for the men to place their right hand on their testicles when taking an oath. [5] In 387 BCE Ancient Rome is sacked and looted by the Gauls, a neighboring empire. [7] ROMAN RELIGION & PHILOSOPHY BBC - Roman Religion Gallery Roman Religion Roman Mythology Ancient Rome: Roman Religion more on Roman Religion Religion in the Home Cosmic Mystery of Mithras: Mithraism - Ancient Religion - EAWC Essay: Mithraism - The Ecole Initiative: Mithraism Roman Philosophy Hellenistic / Roman Religion & Philosophy VIA ROMANA: Philosophy For more info, check out the section on Judiasm and Christianity in the Roman Empire below. [5] The gladiator is most likely the first image one calls to mind when thinking about entertainment in ancient Rome. [8]

Timeline of Ancient Rome which signifies the first form of modern civilization in the history human kind development. [9]

Pontifex Maximus was the highest religious post in the Ancient Rome. [10] Cases of suicide are known to have occurred in ancient Rome, as they have been recorded by ancient writers. [8]

Test your knowledge about Timeline of Ancient Rome with this online quiz. [11] This is a very brief timeline of events concerning ancient Rome. [11]

It's time to lose yourself in the ancient Rome and learn something about history with this Rome Timeline Infographic. [12] Ancient Rome by the Mining Co. There are several good pages here covering the history of Rome, including the Early & Republican History page, the Punic Wars page, and the History of the Empire page. [13] Ancient Rome Nicely annotated links to other sites on the subjects of: archaeology, art and architecture, history, literature, philosophy, and religion. [13] Follow the strands of history with these unique teaching aids! A pictorial history of ancient Rome is depicted from the years 753 B.C. through 476 A.D. Colorfully illustrated with precise detail, the reverse side includes reproducible activity cards for extending classroom activities. [14] Another valuable site for maps of ancient Rome is the European Maps Archive, with separate maps depicting many stages in Rome's history and growth. [13]

Ancient History Sourcebook: Rome This Sourcebook, like the other ones, provide pointers to the histories and literature of the Republic and Empire, as well as numerous other helps. [13]

Exploring Ancient World Cultures: Ancient Rome A well-done introduction to the culture of Ancient Rome, with links. [13] Ancient Rome Links One of the better links pages, including many useful sites. [13]

Roman society changed enormously over time as Rome expanded from small city-state to huge empire Throughout almost all Roman history, however, the basic class distinctions of Roman society remained in place. [3] The city of Rome was sacked, but by that time, the capital of the Empire was no longer in the city. [2] This was the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome has fallen to an enemy. [1] First Dacian War : The Dacian king Decebalus reaffirmed his loyalty to Rome, ending the war. [15] First Mithridatic War : A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders. [15] Sulla's first civil war : The consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome. [15] Roman-Etruscan Wars : A Clusian army failed to conquer Rome. [15]

The Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom, elected Ancus Marcius King of Rome. [15] Ptolemy of Mauretania, king of Mauretania and a Roman client, was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. [15] "Gallic Catastrophe:" Duke Brennus of the Celts defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome. [4] Rome expanded, extending to about 350 square miles during this period, but the Romans didn't care for their monarchs and got rid of them. [2]

Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople as the end of Rome in the west and east, respectively. [15] Rome defeats Etruscan Veii in the Veientine War the Etruscan king Lars Tolumnius is killed. [4] Lars Porsenna, Etruscan king of Chiusi, lays siege to Rome. [4]

Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) : Rome dealt a bloody defeat to the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo. [15] Rome wins a naval battle against Carthage at Sulcis during the First Punic War. [4] Carthage defeats Rome in a naval battle at Drepanum during the First Punic War. [4] Rome wins a land battle south of Tunis during the First Punic War. [4] Rome lands an army of four legions on African soil at Clupea during the First Punic War. [4] Rome besieges and sacks Agrigento on Sicily in one of the first actions of the First Punic War. [4] Rome builds a fleet of 120 ships in just 60 days to fight the First Punic War. [4]

The semi-legendary celeres or trossuli - a 300-man cavalry corps which the first kings of Rome incorporated into the legion - is formed, later their number is increased to 600. [4] The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus. [4] Huge stone bridges, the first of their kind, were thrown across rivers multistoried aqueducts marched across valleys and awe-inspiring buildings such as the Pantheon in Rome, and much later the Cathedral of S. Sophia in Constantinople, used domed roofs to enclose larger areas than any other building until the 16th century. [3] First documented martydom in the Colosseum of Rome, that of St. Ignatius of Antioch. [4] The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out. [4] Two plebeians hold the two positions of censor for the first time in Rome. [4] By the Iron Age (at some point in time between c.1000-c.800 B.C.), there were huts in Rome Etruscans were extending their civilization into Campania Greek cities had sent colonists to the Italic Peninsula. [2] In its early centuries Rome was particularly influenced by the powerful Etruscan civilization to its north, from which it acquired many aspects of its culture. [3] Rome sacks the Etruscan town of Veii after a ten-year siege. [4] Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. [4] Mercenary War : Carthage surrendered its claims on Sardinia and Corsica to Rome. [15] Civil wars of the Tetrarchy : Rioters in Rome acclaimed Maximian's son Maxentius ruler of Rome. [15] Florianus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard and commander of Roman forces in the west, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops. [15] Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander of Roman forces in the east and Tacitus's half-brother, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops. [15] The Legio XIV Gemina acclaimed its commander Septimius Severus ruler of Rome at Carnuntum. [15] The armies of the Danube region acclaimed their commander Trebonianus Gallus ruler of Rome. [15] Magnentius, commander of the Jovians and Herculians, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions. [15] The army elected Maximinus Thrax, commander of the Legio IV Italica, ruler of Rome. [15] The army acclaimed Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard assassinated Galba and acclaimed Otho ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the former consul Didius Julianus, who had provided the highest bid, ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed their prefect Macrinus ruler of Rome. [15] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the consul Pertinax ruler of Rome at the Castra Praetoria. [15] The Praetorian Guard elected their prefect Carus ruler of Rome. [15] Elagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, which installed his young cousin Severus Alexander as ruler of Rome. [15]

The general Postumus was declared ruler of Rome in the Gallic Empire. [15] The Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan. [15] The general Claudius Gothicus was declared ruler of Rome by his soldiers. [15]

The Senate recognized Vespasian, the commander of Roman forces in Egypt and Judea, as ruler of Rome. [15]

This list begins with the founding of the village of Rome around 753 BCE and continues to the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE. It is particularly detailed for the period from 58 BCE to 31 BCE (Julius Caesar to Caesar Augustus) and for 376 CE to 480 CE (the "fall" of the Western Roman Empire). [16] In 395 AD, Rome split into two empires - the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. [1]

We will deal further with the impact of Rome when we look at the roots of Western civilization. [3]

A relative by marriage of Marius, Julius Caesar created civil war in Rome. [2] Forum of Caesar constructed in Rome by Julius Caesar as another area to conduct judicial business. [4]

At the height of its empire, Rome was probably the largest city on the planet, with more than a million inhabitants. [3] Samnite Wars : Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa. [15] Battle of Lautulae : A decisive Samnite victory near Terracina split Rome in half. [15] Battle of Aquae Sextiae : Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians. [15] Rome defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Metaurus. [4] A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War. [4] Banking had been practiced in Rome since at least the days of the 2nd Punic War (218-202 BCE). [3]

Sack of Rome (410) : Rome was sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I. [15] The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome : Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. [4] Servius Tullius was murdered by his daughter Tullia Minor and her husband Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who declared himself king of Rome on the steps of the Curia Hostilia. [15] Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, dies in exile at Cumae. [4] The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome. [15]

Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage. [4] In large cities such as Rome, apartment blocks as high as five stories (or even more, before the emperor Augustus imposed housing regulations) were built, divided into many rooms. [3]

Social War (91-88 BC) : The Roman clients in Italy the Marsi, the Paeligni, the Vestini, the Marrucini, the Picentes, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the Iapyges, Pompeii, Venosa, Lucania and Samnium rebelled against Rome. [15] He will become one of the military advisors of king Antiochos III Megas in his war against Rome. [4] Fourth Macedonian War : An Andriscus rebelled against Rome, claiming to be Perseus's son and the rightful king of Macedonia. [15]

Revolt of the Batavi : Gaius Julius Civilis, commander of the Batavi auxiliaries in the Rhine legions, turned against Rome. [15]

These rested on the development of the first form of concrete in history, a step that took place in southern Italy in the 2nd century BCE. This material (which used volcanic lava as its base) was crucial to Roman architectural innovations such as the arch and the dome. [3] The Roman world saw the next major step along this path with the building of the first water mills recorded by history. [3]

Roman Empire Timeline Timeline Description: The Roman Empire was one of the greatest civilizations in history. [1] This is a timeline of Roman history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires. [15] Ancient Roman history lasted for more than a millennium, during which the government changed substantially from kings to Republic to Empire. [2] The central period of Roman history runs from about the second century B.C. through the second century A.D., roughly, the late Republic to the Severan dynasty of emperors. [2] It changed considerably over the long period of Roman history, but for most of this time it was based around the legion. [3]

This timeline shows these major divisions over time and the defining features of each, with links to further timelines showing the key events in each period. [2] This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC and then from 64 AD to 1453 AD. [1]

The most famous of these was that of the Ancient Greeks, but others included those of the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians and the Etruscans, plus several lesser-known peoples such as the Lycians. [3] Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War. [4]

Roman Empire, the ancient empire, centred on the city of Rome, that was established in 27 bce following the demise of the Roman Republic and continuing to the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century ce. [17] Rome expanded vastly and became the largest empire of the ancient era with the population of 50 to 80 million population. [10]

While the eastern empire remained until the early medieval period--first as Byzantium then as Constantinople--it is often argued that what made Rome the most revered Empire in history had been lost long before the west fell, and was never recaptured by the east. [8] L. Cornelius Sulla marches upon Rome, the first in history to do so. [18] Rome history was divided into three different era -Before the rise of Rome, Roman Republic, and Roman Empire. [10]

As with the foundation of the city, later Romans believed they knew the precise date of the beginning of the Republic: 509 BC, when the seventh and last king of Rome, the tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus, was thought to have been ousted by an aristocratic coup. [6] By the last century BC, Romans believed that Rome had been founded in exactly 753 BC. The story was that the twins Romulus and Remus, sons of the god Mars, were left to die by being put in a basket, set adrift on the river Tiber. [6] A period of unrest and civil wars in the 1st century bc marked the transition of Rome from a republic to an empire. [17] Rome started as an Iron Age hunt village in the mid of 8th country BC. It had expanded into 6.5 million square kilometers, civilization shifted from a monarchy to a classical republic to an increasingly autocratic empire during its 12 centuries of existences. [10]

Although Roman resilience and resources were stretched to near breaking point by a string of defeats, Rome ultimately emerged victorious, and the war marked the end of Carthage as a regional power. [6] In his so-called "settlement of the east’ (a modern term which obscures the expansionist nature of his activities), Pompey established two new Roman provinces (Syria and Bithynia-Pontus), vastly expanded a third (Cilicia), and conducted diplomacy that turned numerous local rulers into clients of Rome. [6] After Rome emerged victorious, the settlement they imposed underpinned subsequent Roman conquests of Italy and overseas territories. [6] The fall of Rome was completed in 476, when the German chieftain Odoacer deposed the last Roman emperor of the West, Romulus Augustulus. [17] Imperial strife, economic hardships, and military greed forced Rome into the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 AD), which only came to an end with the ascension of Diocletian in 284 AD. It was Diocletian who officially split the Empire from his reign on, every emperor (now called an Augustus ) had a co-emperor stationed in the opposite region--one ruled from Rome westward the other from Byzantium eastward. [8] Gaius Octavian Thurinus (Julius Caesar's nephew) became the first emperor of the Rome and took the name Augustus Caesar. [10] Octavian named Augustus and is officially the first Emperor of Rome. [18]

Rome demonstrated its adaptability in building its first large war fleet, and its almost limitless manpower in building several replacements after repeated catastrophic disasters. [6] Following the events of the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Octavian, adopted son of the first dictator Julius Caesar, took over sole power of Rome and all her provinces. [8] JULIUS CAESAR The Julius Caesar Site Rome: Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar - SUPER! Julius Caesar: Historical Background The Landings of Caesar in Britain, 55 and 54 BC - More on Caesar's military command in the warfare section below. [5]

This period encompassed the career of Julius Caesar, who eventually took full power over Rome as its dictator. [17] Although Julius Caesar ruled Rome as the emperor for a while he was never considered as Emperor. [10] Whoops! Julius was not the first dictator of Rome by a long shot. [10]

Rome fought three wars against the great North African city of Carthage. [6] Rome, historic city and capital of Roma provincia (province), of Lazio regione (region), and of the country of Italy. [17] The West was severely shaken in 410, when the city of Rome was sacked by the Visigoths, a wandering nation of Germanic peoples from the northeast. [17]

During the later republic and most of the empire, Rome was the dominant power in the entire Mediterranean basin, most of western Europe, and large areas of northern Africa. [17] When Theodosius died, in 395, Rome split into Eastern and Western empires. [17] The borders of Rome expanded, and powerful strides were made both in the eastern and western parts of the Empire. [8] The Punic Wars left Rome as the dominant power in the western Mediterranean. [6] The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) was a foregone conclusion, in which Rome was finally successful in destroying its hated rival. [6]

Augustus ruled the Roman Empire from 31 BCE to 14 BCE. During his time he made many remarkable changes in the Rome. [10] In 280 BCE many Greek cities in South Italy were taken by Rome. [7]

Among the beloved rulers of Rome were Trajan (reigned 98-117), Hadrian (117-138), Antoninus Pius (138-161), and Marcus Aurelius (161-180). [17] Under Augustus, Rome began to prosper once again, and the emperor came to be looked upon as a god. [17]

The Romans possessed a powerful army and were gifted in the applied arts of law, government, city planning, and statecraft, but they also acknowledged and adopted contributions of other ancient peoples--most notably, those of the Greeks, much of whose culture was thereby preserved. [17] The Romans had conquered ancient Greece and became almost a copycat civilization, taking many of the architectural, artistic, and even their religious elements from them. [19] The Ancient Roman empire was one of the largest ancient civilizations, almost all of Europe by itself at the height of its power. [19] ROMAN HOMES Roman House The Roman Home Diagram of a Roman House A Roman House ancient roman housing - homes Life in Pompeii Roman House Sources Age, Gender and Status Divisions at Mealtime in the Roman House More info on Roman Architecture below in the section on Art. [5]

By the last century BC, these generals would lead their armies against Rome and each other. [6] The consul L. Julius Caesar passes a law, the lex Julia de civitate Latinus et sociis danda, which gives the citizenship to those Italians who had not taken up arms against Rome. [18]

All Romans had been recalled to Rome and the Emperor Honorious told the people of Britain that they no longer had a connection to Rome and that they should defend themselves. [20] AD 401 A large amount of troops are withdrawn from Britain to assist with the war again Alaric I, who is attempting to sack Rome. [21] AD 369 A large force from Rome, led by military commander Theodosius, arrives in Britain and drives back the Barbarians. [21] AD 197 After a period of in-fighting within Rome, a series of military commissioners arrive in Britain looking to purge any supporters of the recently ousted usurper, Decimus Clodius. [21] He also starts building the famous 'Saxon Shore Forts' along the coasts of Britain, both to strengthen defenses against the Germanic tribes to the east but also to prevent Rome from sending a fleet to recover Britain for the empire. [21]

Below is a Roman Britain timeline, featuring the most important events in the Roman occupation of Britain, from Julius Caesar's first attempts at invasion to the fall of the island to the Saxons to the military success of the Britons, leading to the legends of King Arthur. [20] From Julius Caesar's first landing on the shoreline of England in 55BC to the famous 'Look to your own defences' letter of AD410, the Romans played an important part in British history for over 400 years. [21] I love the study of Ancient Roman architecture, art, history and the incredible society they built. [9]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(21 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Main keywords of the article below: rome, history, ancient, highlights, timeline, events.

KEY TOPICS
This timeline highlights the major events in the history of Ancient Rome. [1] The term Ancient Rome refers to the city of Rome, which was located in central Italy and also to the empire it came to rule, which covered the entire Mediterranean basin and much of western Europe. [2] The rise and fall of Ancient Rome formed a crucial episode in the rise of Western civilization. [2] The civilization of Ancient Rome was rooted, directly or indirectly, in all these earlier culture. [2] Regal Period of ancient Rome from Founding to Birth of the Republic. [3]

Through Rome the achievements of ancient Greek civilization passed to Medieval Europe with unique Roman contributions added. [2] This article is about the ancient polities with their capitals at Rome and Constantinople. [4]

Following tradition, this timeline marks the deposition of Romulus Augustulus and the Fall of Constantinople as the end of Rome in the west and east, respectively. [4]


Christianity comes to Rome in 380 AD. 9. 395 AD, Rome splits. 10. 476 AD is the end of the Western Roman Empire and the fall of Ancient Rome. 11. [5] In 387 BCE Ancient Rome is sacked and looted by the Gauls, a neighboring empire. [6] Main events in Ancient Rome that happened between 1000 B.C and 264 B.C. [7]

Directions for students to create a timeline based on Ancient Rome, emphasizing the changes from a monarchy to a republic to an empire. [8] This handout gives students directions to create and correctly label a timeline based on Ancient Rome from 800 BC to 1400 AD. Then students are asked questions based off of the information on the timeline. [8] Included is a completed Ancient Rome timeline and answers to the interpretation questions. [8]


This Fall of Rome timeline, however, uses standard events and marks the end with Gibbon's conventionally accepted date for the fall of Rome in A.D. 476 (from his famous histories entitled The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire ). [9] The date at which you start or end a Fall of Rome timeline is subject to debate and interpretation. [9]

Harry Sidebottom is a lecturer in ancient history at Lincoln College, Oxford, and author of the Warrior of Rome and Throne of the Caesars series of novels. [10]

The gladiator is most likely the first image one calls to mind when thinking about entertainment in ancient Rome. [11] The student handout has content about Ancient Rome included on it. [8] Cases of suicide are known to have occurred in ancient Rome, as they have been recorded by ancient writers. [11]

Timeline of Ancient Rome Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [12] Test your knowledge about Timeline of Ancient Rome with this online quiz. [13] To accompany the Ancient Rome Student Reader and Teacher Guide, these Timeline Cards serve as visual aids to reinforce big ideas, clarify the chronology and context of historical events, and prompt discussion. [14]


Roman Empire, the ancient empire, centred on the city of Rome, that was established in 27 bce following the demise of the Roman Republic and continuing to the final eclipse of the Empire of the West in the 5th century ce. [15]

First Dacian War : The Dacian king Decebalus reaffirmed his loyalty to Rome, ending the war. [4] First Mithridatic War : A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders. [4] Rome defeats Etruscan Veii in the Veientine War the Etruscan king Lars Tolumnius is killed. [3] Lars Porsenna, Etruscan king of Chiusi, lays siege to Rome. [3]

The Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom, elected Ancus Marcius King of Rome. [4] Ptolemy of Mauretania, king of Mauretania and a Roman client, was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. [4] Roman society changed enormously over time as Rome expanded from small city-state to huge empire Throughout almost all Roman history, however, the basic class distinctions of Roman society remained in place. [2] The Latins were a people who had settled in central Italy some centuries before Rome was founded Rome was originally one of their towns, and although the Romans came to be of somewhat mixed Italian stock (Latin, Sabine, Etruscan), they spoke the Latin dialect. [2] "Gallic Catastrophe:" Duke Brennus of the Celts defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome. [3] Rome declares war on Carthage after Hannibal sacks Saguntum in Spain. [3] Mercenary War : Carthage surrendered its claims on Sardinia and Corsica to Rome. [4] Roman-Etruscan Wars : A Clusian army failed to conquer Rome. [4] The Republican government involved a mix of different institutions the magistrates, above all the two annually elected consuls the senate, a council of state composed of the most important men in Rome (senators) and the popular assemblies, which elected the magistrates and had the final say as to whether Rome went to war or not. [2] Sulla's first civil war : The consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome. [4] Rome lands an army of four legions on African soil at Clupea during the First Punic War. [3] Rome wins a naval battle against Carthage at Sulcis during the First Punic War. [3] Carthage defeats Rome in a naval battle at Drepanum during the First Punic War. [3] Rome wins a land battle south of Tunis during the First Punic War. [3] Rome besieges and sacks Agrigento on Sicily in one of the first actions of the First Punic War. [3] Rome builds a fleet of 120 ships in just 60 days to fight the First Punic War. [3]

The semi-legendary celeres or trossuli - a 300-man cavalry corps which the first kings of Rome incorporated into the legion - is formed, later their number is increased to 600. [3] The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus. [3] Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) : Rome dealt a bloody defeat to the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo. [4] Battle of Lautulae : A decisive Samnite victory near Terracina split Rome in half. [4] Battle of Aquae Sextiae : Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians. [4] Rome defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Metaurus. [3] The army acclaimed Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, ruler of Rome. [4] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the former consul Didius Julianus, who had provided the highest bid, ruler of Rome. [4] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the consul Pertinax ruler of Rome at the Castra Praetoria. [4] Florianus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard and commander of Roman forces in the west, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops. [4] Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander of Roman forces in the east and Tacitus's half-brother, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops. [4] The Legio XIV Gemina acclaimed its commander Septimius Severus ruler of Rome at Carnuntum. [4] The armies of the Danube region acclaimed their commander Trebonianus Gallus ruler of Rome. [4] Magnentius, commander of the Jovians and Herculians, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions. [4] The army elected Maximinus Thrax, commander of the Legio IV Italica, ruler of Rome. [4] The Senate recognized Vespasian, the commander of Roman forces in Egypt and Judea, as ruler of Rome. [4] The Senate recognized Decius's son Hostilian as ruler of Rome. [4] The Senate recognized Septimius Severus as ruler of Rome and sentenced Julianus to death. [4] The general Postumus was declared ruler of Rome in the Gallic Empire. [4] The Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan. [4] The general Claudius Gothicus was declared ruler of Rome by his soldiers. [4]

The Praetorian Guard assassinated Galba and acclaimed Otho ruler of Rome. [4] The Praetorian Guard acclaimed their prefect Macrinus ruler of Rome. [4] The Praetorian Guard elected their prefect Carus ruler of Rome. [4] Elagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, which installed his young cousin Severus Alexander as ruler of Rome. [4]

Civil wars of the Tetrarchy : Rioters in Rome acclaimed Maximian's son Maxentius ruler of Rome. [4] Lucius Verus died of disease, leaving Marcus the sole ruler of Rome. [4] The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome. [4] The (semi-mythological) seven kings of Rome : Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tulus Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. [3] Servius Tullius was murdered by his daughter Tullia Minor and her husband Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who declared himself king of Rome on the steps of the Curia Hostilia. [4]

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, dies in exile at Cumae. [3]

This was the first time in 800 years that the city of Rome has fallen to an enemy. [1] Two plebeians hold the two positions of censor for the first time in Rome. [3] The first Pantheon is built in Rome and dedicated by Marcus Agrippa. [3] The traditional date when the Circus Maximus of Rome is first laid out. [3]

This list begins with the founding of the village of Rome around 753 BCE and continues to the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE. It is particularly detailed for the period from 58 BCE to 31 BCE (Julius Caesar to Caesar Augustus) and for 376 CE to 480 CE (the "fall" of the Western Roman Empire). [16] In 395 AD, Rome split into two empires - the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. [1]

We will deal further with the impact of Rome when we look at the roots of Western civilization. [2] In its early centuries Rome was particularly influenced by the powerful Etruscan civilization to its north, from which it acquired many aspects of its culture. [2] Rome sacks the Etruscan town of Veii after a ten-year siege. [3] Sack of Rome (410) : Rome was sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I. [4] Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, increases the number of the cavalry corps (equites) to 1,800. [3] The Senate accepted the regent Servius Tullius as king of Rome. [4] The Senate accepted Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as ruler of Rome. [4]

At the height of its empire, Rome was probably the largest city on the planet, with more than a million inhabitants. [2] The Roman Republic governed Rome as it changed from single city-state to enormous empire. [2]

Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage. [3] A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War. [3] Banking had been practiced in Rome since at least the days of the 2nd Punic War (218-202 BCE). [2]

Samnite Wars : Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa. [4] In large cities such as Rome, apartment blocks as high as five stories (or even more, before the emperor Augustus imposed housing regulations) were built, divided into many rooms. [2] Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians. [3]

The castra praetoria, permanent camp of the Praetorian Guard, is built in Rome by Sejanus. [3]

In early Rome, these were probably all members of the class of Patricians, a group of hereditary aristocrats as time went by, however, membership of the senate became more broadly based, as men from Plebeian families were enrolled. [2]

Social War (91-88 BC) : The Roman clients in Italy the Marsi, the Paeligni, the Vestini, the Marrucini, the Picentes, the Frentani, the Hirpini, the Iapyges, Pompeii, Venosa, Lucania and Samnium rebelled against Rome. [4] He will become one of the military advisors of king Antiochos III Megas in his war against Rome. [3] Fourth Macedonian War : An Andriscus rebelled against Rome, claiming to be Perseus's son and the rightful king of Macedonia. [4]

Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War. [3]

This is a timeline of Roman history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in the Roman Kingdom and Republic and the Roman and Byzantine Empires. [4] This timeline goes from 753 BC to 27 BC and then from 64 AD to 1453 AD. [1]

The most famous of these was that of the Ancient Greeks, but others included those of the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians and the Etruscans, plus several lesser-known peoples such as the Lycians. [2]


Although Rome was not controlled by Etruscan cities, the Etruscan kings expanded the many Roman villages into a city that spanned over 500 square miles. [17] As with the foundation of the city, later Romans believed they knew the precise date of the beginning of the Republic: 509 BC, when the seventh and last king of Rome, the tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus, was thought to have been ousted by an aristocratic coup. [10] Although Roman resilience and resources were stretched to near breaking point by a string of defeats, Rome ultimately emerged victorious, and the war marked the end of Carthage as a regional power. [10] Rome fought three wars against the great North African city of Carthage. [10] Rome demonstrated its adaptability in building its first large war fleet, and its almost limitless manpower in building several replacements after repeated catastrophic disasters. [10] The Republic functioned effectively until civil war during the first century BCE led to the fall of the Republic and the creation of the Roman Empire in 27 CE.While the Roman Republic was a time of great advances in science, art, and architecture, the "fall of Rome" refers to the end of the Roman Empire in 476 CE. [9] Rome, according to tradition, was founded in 753 BCE. It wasn't until 509 BCE, however, that the Roman Republic was founded. [9]

In his so-called "settlement of the east’ (a modern term which obscures the expansionist nature of his activities), Pompey established two new Roman provinces (Syria and Bithynia-Pontus), vastly expanded a third (Cilicia), and conducted diplomacy that turned numerous local rulers into clients of Rome. [10] By the last century BC, Romans believed that Rome had been founded in exactly 753 BC. The story was that the twins Romulus and Remus, sons of the god Mars, were left to die by being put in a basket, set adrift on the river Tiber. [10] Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus, who was also their first king. 2. [5] According to legend, Rome is founded in 753 B.C Romulus is Rome's first king. [7]

The first settlers arrive on the Palatine hill, one of the seven hills on which the city of Rome is later built. [7] In 45 BC, Julius Caesar becomes the first dictator of Rome. 5. [5] Octavian named Augustus and is officially the first Emperor of Rome. [18] L. Cornelius Sulla marches upon Rome, the first in history to do so. [18] The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) was a foregone conclusion, in which Rome was finally successful in destroying its hated rival. [10] The Punic Wars left Rome as the dominant power in the western Mediterranean. [10]

By the last century BC, these generals would lead their armies against Rome and each other. [10] The consul L. Julius Caesar passes a law, the lex Julia de civitate Latinus et sociis danda, which gives the citizenship to those Italians who had not taken up arms against Rome. [18]

This timeline begins just before the east-west splitting of the Roman Empire, a time described as chaotic, and ends when the last Roman emperor was deposed but allowed to live out his life in retirement. [9]


Imperial strife, economic hardships, and military greed forced Rome into the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 AD), which only came to an end with the ascension of Diocletian in 284 AD. It was Diocletian who officially split the Empire from his reign on, every emperor (now called an Augustus ) had a co-emperor stationed in the opposite region--one ruled from Rome westward the other from Byzantium eastward. [11] AD 401 A large amount of troops are withdrawn from Britain to assist with the war again Alaric I, who is attempting to sack Rome. [19] AD 369 A large force from Rome, led by military commander Theodosius, arrives in Britain and drives back the Barbarians. [19]

Following the events of the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, Octavian, adopted son of the first dictator Julius Caesar, took over sole power of Rome and all her provinces. [11] Julius Caesar turns his attention to seizing supreme power in Rome itself. 49 BC - Caesar crosses the Rubicon. [20]

Rome was ruled by kings for the next 240 years. 509 BC - Rome becomes a republic. [21]

Caesar decides to march on Rome and crosses the Rubicon River with a standing army, throwing the empire into civil war. [20] The borders of Rome expanded, and powerful strides were made both in the eastern and western parts of the Empire. [11] While the eastern empire remained until the early medieval period--first as Byzantium then as Constantinople--it is often argued that what made Rome the most revered Empire in history had been lost long before the west fell, and was never recaptured by the east. [11] This could be an important leader, way of survival, physical feature that impacted this part of history, etc. Roman Republic 753 BC - The city of Rome is founded. [21] Romulus killed Remus and became ruler of Rome and named the city after himself. [21]

At this time, the Plebeian class has come to power politically and the first schools in Rome are developed. [22]

When you think of ancient Vikings, the first thing that pops into your mind is probably not jewelry, right? The picture that forms in the mind of most people is one of savages with long sharp spears, swords, and heavy shields attacking coastal communities. [11]

RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(22 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (1890) William Smith, LLD, William Wayte, G. E. Marindin, Ed.

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STIPE´NDIUM

In B.C. 406, at the beginning of the Veientine War, a regular payment ( stipendium ) was first made to the army previously to this there had been no provision made for the foot-soldiers ( milites ), but each had served at his own cost ( Liv. 5.4 , “moleste autem ferebat miles de suo sumptu operam reipublicae praebere” Zonaras, 7.20 , ἀμισθὶ γὰρ μέχρι τότε καὶ οἰκόσιτοι ἐστρατεύοντο ), although Dionysius says of the year B.C. 466 that a semestre stipendium had been given to the army for the supply of provisions ( εἰς ὀφωνιασμόν, Dionys. A. R. 5.47 ). The more probable date, however, is that of the siege of Veii the ten years' campaign and the necessity of remaining in winter-quarters making it impossible for the legionaries to furnish their own support (Florus, 1.12 , “tum primum hiematum sub pellibus” Lydus, de Mag. 1.46). Previously to this some provision had been made for the equites, not in the way of furnishing them with necessaries during the campaign, but only for the purpose of supplying and maintaining their horses [AES EQUESTRE and AES HORDEARIUM] but some years after the stipendium had been granted to the infantry we find the equites also receiving a similar support ( Liv. 5.7 , “equiti certus numerus aeris est assignatus” Zonaras, 7.20 ). This original stipendium, however, was not a regular payment for services ( μισθός ), but an indemnity for the expenses of the soldiers during a campaign it is described by the expressions ἐφόδια ( Diod. 4.16 ), σιτηρέσιον (Lydus, de Mag. 1.45), ὀφωνιασμός ( Dionys. A. R. 5.47 ) but that it left some margin over as a reward for service seems shown by the words of Livy ( 5.4 , “miles gaudet nunc fructui sibi rempublicam esse” ), as in the time of Polybius, when the stipendium was still regarded as an ὀφώνιον, the daily payment certainly exceeded the cost of the provisions supplied ( Plb. 6.39 ). The payments [p. 2.715] were made either half-yearly ( Dionys. A. R. 9.59 9.17 , χρήματα εἰς ὀψωνιασμὸν ἓξ μηνῶν or yearly ( Diod. 14.16 ), according as the campaign lasted, under: or over six months. Hence the transference of stipendium from its meaning of “pay” to that of “length of service or campaign.” The year of war service began on March 1st, the. old official New Year's day, and the six-months' service ( semestre stipendium ) ended with the close of August (Mommsen, Rechtsfrage <*>zwischen Caesar und dem Senat, p. 15 sq.). Before the creation of the standing army for the purpose of provincial control, a period of service over six months was unusual but eventually military duties extended over the whole year, a period of service over six months or two periods of six months being regarded as an annuum stipendium (Lex Julia Munic. C. I. L. 1, n. 206, 50.92, “quae stipendia majorem partem. sui quojusque anni fecerit, aut bina semnestria, quae ei pro singuleis annueis procedere oporteat” ). The usual mode of payment before the time of the dictator Caesar was probably half-yearly during the Empire, as will be seen in discussing the reforms in the rate of payment, the troops' were paid every four months.

The effect of the regular stipendium was that the cost of the provisions given to the Roman soldiers was subtracted from their pay by the quaestor while the socii, who were not paid by the state, had such advances made to them free of charge ( Plb. 6.39 ). The allowance for the allies in Polybius' time was, for the infantry 2/3 medimnus of wheat a month, for the cavalry 1 1/3 medimni of wheat a month and five of barley. The allowance for the infantry soldier of Rome was the same as that for the infantry soldier of the allied states, but the Roman equites received two medimni of wheat a month and seven of barley. The expenses for fresh supplies of uniform and arms were deducted, like the cost of provisions, from the Roman soldier's pay (Polyb. l.c.), and this was still the case in the early Empire. We find, indeed, that C. Gracchus passed a law which gave to the soldiers their uniforms free of charge (Plut. C. Gracch. 5) but even if this law was passed, it could not have been permanent, since we find from the complaints of the legionaries in the reign of Tiberius that the cost of uniforms, weapons, and tents was taken from their pay ( Tac. Ann. 1.17 ). It is conjectured from two passages in Suetonius ( Suet. Jul. 26 and 68) that in the later Republic corn was sometimes supplied by the state free of charge to the troops, and this certainly seems to be the case in the earlier Empire, since, on the meeting of the legions in the reign of Tiberius, they count among their grievances the fact that the expenditure for arms and uniforms was deducted from their pay, but do not mention the frumentum, which, if it had not been supplied gratis, would have been quite the largest item deducted ( Tac. Ann. 1.17 ). The praetorian cohorts were first supplied with free corn in Nero's reign ( Tac. Ann. 15.72 Suet. Nero 10 ), and during the later Empire it is known to have been supplied free of charge to the whole army (Lamprid. Alex. Sev. 52). The same was eventually the case with arms and uniform, and under the later Caesars the legionary's pay was unburdened by any military expenses ( Dig. 49 , 16 , 14 , 1 Lamprid. l.c. “non contra eum--Alexandrum--qui annonam, qui vestem, qui stipendia vobis attribuit” ).

As regards the rate of payment, there is no evidence to show that there was a fixed rate when the stipendium was first introduced. We first hear of regular proportions of pay in the time of Polybius, who tells us that the legionaries received two obols, the centurions four obols, and the equites a drachma a day ( Plb. 6.39 , 12 ). The drachma is equivalent to the denarius, which was originally worth ten asses the foot-soldier received two obols, that is 1/3 denarius, or 3 1/3 asses a day, which Plautus, leaving out the fraction, calls tres nummi (Plaut. Mostell. 2.1, 10). For the year of 360 days this makes for the annuum stipendium of the foot-soldier, 1200 asses (360 [multi] 3 1/3 ) of the centurion, who received double this amount, 2400 asses of the eques, who received a full denarius, 3600 asses. In B.C. 217 the new uncial measurement was introduced, and the denarius is from this time forthworth sixteen instead of ten asses. Pliny, in his account of this lowering of the copper standard, says, “In militari tamen stipendio semper denarius pro decem assibus datus” (H. N. 33.45): that is, where ten asses (the old denarius) had been given before, the new denarius (sixteen asses) was given now, and “the soldiers received in silver as much pay as before” (Boeckh, Metrol. Unters. p. 425). The pay, therefore, was still 120 denarii a year, but this, instead of being 1200 asses a year (120 [multi] 10), was 1920 asses a year (120 [multi] 16), or 5 1/3 asses a day instead of 3 1/3 asses, the former rate of payment. Till the time of Caesar the daily pay of the legionaries was 5 1/3 asses Caesar is said by Suetonius to have doubled the pay ( Suet. Jul. 26 , “legionibus stipendium in perpetuum duplicavit” ). If this were strictly true, the pay. should have been raised to 10 2/3 asses, but we find from Tacitus that it was only raised to ten: asses ( Tac. Ann. 1.17 , “denis in diem assibus animam et corpus aestimari” ). The true nature of Caesar's reform is explained by Marquardt by reference to a passage in Suetonius, who tells us that Domitian “addidit et quartum stipendium militi aureos ternos.” A stipendium is here said to be three aurei the aureus was twenty-five denarii, and three aurei would be seventy-five denarii or 1200 asses (75 [multi] 16). This shows that 1200 asses were still counted a stipendium in the new coinage as it had been in the old and since Domitian is said to have added a fourth stipendium, Caesar's reform consisted in giving the soldiers three stipendia, reckoned as a stipendium had been in the old coinage (1200 asses) instead of one stipendium reckoned as it had been in the new coinage (1920 asses). The soldiers now, instead of 1920 asses a year, received 3600 asses a year (1200 [multi] 3) that is, as Tacitus says, ten asses a day or, reckoning the stipendium in denarii, the soldiers from the time of Caesar, instead of receiving 120 new denarii (1920 asses) a year, received 225 new denarii (3600 asses). Domitian increased the pay by three aurei, that is seventy-five denarii, so that after Domitian their pay would have been 300 new denarii a year (225 + 75) (Marquardt, Staatsverw. v. p. 93). That Caesar, in raising the pay to three stipendia a year, had [p. 2.716] made the payments every four months, and that Domitian, although he added a fourth stipendium, still retained this mode of payment, is shown by the passage of Zonaras in which he speaks of Domitian's increase of the pay: καὶ τοῖς στρατιώταις ἐπηύξησε τὴν μισθοφοράν: πέντε γὰρ καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα δραχμὰς ἑκάστου λαμβάνοντος, ἑκατὸν ἐκέλευσε δίδοσθαι ( Zonar. 11.29 ): that, is, as Caesar had divided the whole year's pay of 225 denarii into three stipendia of seventy-five denarii each, so Domitian divided the increased year's pay of 300 denarii into three stipendia of 100 denarii each. What the amount of the stipendium was in the time of the old libral as is unknown but it has been conjectured that it was 240 of these libral asses, which would be about equivalent to 1200 of the later asses, at their value before the year B.C. 217 five of these asses sextantarii being, according to Boeckh, equivalent to one libral as (Boeckh, Metrolog. Unters. p. 458 Mommsen, Die römische Tribus, p. 43). We find in Gaius the mention of an old custom permitting the Roman soldier, in case of his not receiving the stipendium due to him, to distrain on the goods of the officer whose duty it was to administer the pay (Gaius, 4.26).

Under the Empire the Roman forces were divided into four parts--the legionaries, the home troops (consisting of the urban and praetorian cohorts), the auxilia, and the fleet. Of the strength and rate of payment of these last two branches of the force we know nothing. That the soldiers of the praetorian cohorts received two full denarii--that is, thirty-two asses a day--is implied in the passage of Tacitus ( Tac. Ann. 1.17 cf. 26), where the legionaries claim a full denarius or sixteen asses a day, alleging that the praetorians received bini denarii, although it is elsewhere stated that they received double pay ( D. C. 53.11 , 5 ), which, as the legionaries received ten asses a day, would be twenty and not thirty-two asses and it is possible that this latter statement is strictly true, and that Tacitus makes the legionaries purposely exaggerate the rate of pay of the praetorian. The gross annual amount expended on the legionaries and the home troops in the reign of Tiberius is estimated by Marquardt at 186,840,000 sesterces (Staatsverw. v. p. 94), so far as the common soldiers are concerned: for the pay of the higher officers in the period of the early Empire is not known that of a tribune seems to have been high ( Juv. 3.133 ), and we find in the third century that it was as much as 250 aurei or 25,000 sesterces (Mommsen in the Berichte der Kaiserl. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 1852, p. 240). The historians of the later Empire furnish us with instances of very large annual grants furnished by the emperors, both in money and in kind, to tribunes of the legion (Trebell. Poll. Claud. 14, where the grant is called solarium ex nostro privato aerario: cf. Vopisc. Prob. 4) but these were rather in the nature of private grants made to distinguished officers, such as Aurelian the future emperor, to enable them to maintain more state than their ordinary pay permitted (Vopisc. Aurel. 9).

(Marquardt, Staatsverwaltung, v. p. 90 sq. Boeckh, Metrologische Untersuchungen, p. 423 sq. Dureau de la Malle, Économie politique des Romains, i. p. 134 sq. Mommsen, Die römische Tribus, p. 31 sq.


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