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632 - 634
Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
632 - 633
Ridda Wars (Wars of Apostacy): re-unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the banner of Islam.
634 - 644
Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Battle of Ajnadayn: Muslim invasion of Syria.
Battle of al-Qadisiyya.
Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
Umar distributes food during a famine in Arabia.
Battle of Heliopolis. Byzantine forces defeated by Umar's general Amr ibn al-Aas.
644 - 656
Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
Umar ibn al-Khattab
Second of the four "rightly guided" caliphs. Umar was born in Mecca around 581 to the Adi clan of the Quraish tribe. Umar belonged to a family of average class, but he was able to become literate, and was well known for his physical strength, becoming a champion wrestler. When Muhammad first declared his message of Islam, Umar believed Islam was heretical rhetoric against the Quraish and his ancestors, and he resolved to kill Muhammad. He was stopped on his way to Muhammad's house, however, with news of his sister's conversion to Islam. Umar was initially angered by the news, but after reading some of the Quran he was instantly changed. Rather than killing Muhammad, he determined to accept Islam.
Umar was part of the first emigration to Medina, and became an important companion of Muhammad. He participated in all of the Muslim battles against the Quraish. Upon the death of Muhammad, Umar was in such a state of despair that he threatened to decapitate anyone who said that Muhammad was dead.
Abu Bakr became the first successor to Muhammad. During Abu Bakr's short reign as caliph, Umar was an important advisor to him, and Abu Bakr selected Umar as his successor prior to his death. Umar reigned as caliph from 633 until his assassination in 644. Umar's time as caliph saw the Islamic empire grow at an unprecedented rate, taking Iraq and parts of Iran from the Sassanids, and thereby ending that empire, and taking Egypt, Palestine, Syria, North Africa and Armenia from the Byzantines. Umar also codified Islamic law, and was known for his simple lifestyle and modest living. A famous story tells of him arriving in Jerusalem walking beside his camel upon which his servant was sitting.
Umar was murdered in 644 by a Persian slave who was angered by a personal quarrel with Umar he stabbed the caliph six times as Umar led prayers in Masjid al Nabawi. Umar died two days later, and is buried alongside Muhammad and Abu Bakr. Prior to dying, he appointed a council of six men to elect his successor from amongst themselves, chosing Uthman ibn Affan. Umar is most recognized for originating most of the major political institutions of the Muslim state and stabilizing the rapidly expanding Arab empire.
Sources: Saudi Aramco World, (January-February 2002) Wikipedia
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The Pact of Umar Regulating the Status of Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule
After the rapid expansion of the Muslim dominion in the 7th century, Muslims leaders were required to work out a way of dealing with non-Muslims, who remained in the majority in many areas for centuries. The solution was to develop the notion of the &ldquodhimma,&rdquo or &ldquoprotected person&rdquo which applied to the &ldquoPeople of the Book&rdquo &ndash Christians and Jews. Though not forced to convert or treated as harshly as other non-believers, the dhimmi were, in the best of times, second-class citizens and, at certain times and places severely persecuted and murdered.
The Pact of Umar is supposed to have been the peace accord offered by the Caliph Umar to the Christians of Syria in which the Christians make a number of promises to avoid behavior offensive to Muslims. The pact contains a list of rights and restrictions on dhimmis. By abiding by them, non-Muslims are granted the security of their persons, their families, and their possessions.
In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is a document to the servant of Allah `Umar, the Leader of the faithful, from the Christians of such and such city. When you (Muslims) came to us we requested safety for ourselves, children, property and followers of our religion. We made a condition on ourselves that:
We will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims.
We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors [of our houses of worship] for the wayfarer and passerby. Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days.
We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit [or betrayal] against Muslims.
We will not teach our children the Qur'an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so.
We will respect Muslims, move from the places we sit in if they choose to sit in them.
We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons.
We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor.
We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets.
We will not sound the bells in our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices [with prayer] at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or their markets.
We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims.
We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching their privacy in their homes.
We will not beat any Muslim.
These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers of our religion in return for safety and protection. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion.
Sources: &ldquoThe Pact of Umar,&rdquo WikiIslam
&ldquoPact of Umar,&rdquo Wikipedia
&ldquoMedieval Sourcebook: Pact of Umar, 7th Century?&rdquo Internet History Sourcebook.
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Umar Timeline - History
It began a decade before, although in many ways the intensity of the dynamic was missed, but when the hijacked planes hit the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the Shanksville field on September 11, 2001, there was no denying that a new order had emerged. It was a war against our way of life, a war of terror, and our response would dominate the decade and years come.
President Barack Obama. Courtesy Wikipedia Commons.
Photo above: World War II Memorial in Washington, D.C., opened April 29, 2004. Right: Court of Flags at the United Nations, Mateusz Stachowski, SXC Free Images.
U.S. Timeline - The 2000s
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April 1, 2000 - The 2000 census enumerates a population of 281,421,906, increasing 13.2% since 1990. As regions, the South and West continued to pick up the majority of the increase in population, moving the geographic center of U.S. population to Phelps County, Missouri.
November 7, 2000 - Hillary Rodham Clinton wins a seat for the United States Senate from New York. It is the first time a former First Lady wins public office.
January 6, 2001 - Certification of the Electoral College victory of the 2000 United States Presidential election in the U.S. Senate confirms George W. Bush as the victor, with Dick Cheney as his Vice-President.
September 11, 2001 - Islamic fundamentalist terrorists hijack four U.S. airliners and crash them into the Pentagon and the World Trade Center in New York City. The attack of two planes levels the World Trade Center and the crash of one plane inflicts serious damage to the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, causing nearly 3,000 deaths. The fourth plane is heroically crashed by passengers into a Shanksville, Pennsylvania cornfield when they learn of the plot, preventing destruction of another structure in Washington, D.C., supposed to be the White House or the Capitol building. The plot is attributed to the Al-Qaeda organization led by Osama Bin Laden.
September 18, 2001 - Anthrax attacks by mail from Princeton, New Jersey against news and government targets begin. Federal officials announce the first case on October 4.
October 7, 2001 - In response to the tragedy of September 11, the United States military, with participation from its ally the United Kingdom, commence the first attack in the War on Terrorism on the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. By November 12, the Taliban government leaves the capital, Kabul.
February 8, 2002 - Amid tight security due to terrorism concerns, the Winter Olympic Games are opened by President George W. Bush in Salt Lake City, Utah. They would continue without major incident until the closing ceremony on February 24.
May 21, 2002 - The United States State Department issues its report in the War on Terror. It states that there are seven nations that a State-Sponsors: Iran, Iraq, Cuba, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, and Syria.
July 5, 2002 - Continuing its pattern of the past several years, Iraq refuses new proposals from the United Nations concerning weapons inspections. The inspections were part of the cease-fire agreement and terms of surrender in the 1991 Gulf War. On September 12, U.S. President George Bush addresses the United Nations and warns the members that Iraq presents a grave danger to the world that they must confront, or that the United States and others will act unitarily. On October 2, 2002, the United States Congress passes a resolution giving the President of the U.S. the authority to use the military forces of the country as he thinks necessary.
February 1, 2003 - A tragedy at NASA occurs when the Space Shuttle Columbia explodes upon reentry over Texas. All seven astronauts inside are killed.
July 2, 2003 - The International Olympic Committee votes in Prague that the Winter Olympic Games are coming back to North America, selecting Vancouver, Canada as host of the XXI Olympic Games in 2010.
December 13, 2003 - Saddam Hussein, former leader of Iraq, is captured in a small bunker in Tikrit by the U.S. 4th Infantry Division.
February 3, 2004 - The Central Intelligence Agency admits that the imminent threat from weapons of mass destruction was not present before the 2003 Iraq war began.
November 2, 2004 - President George W. Bush wins reelection over Democratic Senator John Kerry from Massachusetts. He wins 50.7% of the popular vote and 286 votes in the Electoral College.
December 26, 2004 - The southeast Asian tsunami occurs following a 9.3 Richter scale earthquake in the Indian Ocean. Two hundred and ninety thousand people die from Sri Lanka to Indonesia, creating one of the greatest humanitarian tragedies in history. A worldwide relief effort, led by the United States and many other nations, is mobilized to assist.
May 31, 2005 - After more than thirty years in suspense, the identity of Deep Throat, the contact for reporters Woodward and Bernstein in the uncovering of the Watergate scandal, is revealed when W. Mark Felt, the second in command at the FBI at the time, confirms that he was their contact.
July 26, 2005 - In the first Space Shuttle flight since the tragedy of 2003, Discovery goes into orbit on a mission that returns to earth safely on August 9.
October 26, 2005 - The War of Terror continues. With elections in Iraq to confirm a new constitution vying with internal terrorism amid the U.S. military presence on October 15, eleven days later a statement from the Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, calls for the destruction of Israel and condemns the peace process.
December 15, 2005 - First active service in the United States Air Force for the new F22-A plane constructed by Lockheed Martin and Boeing. This f-22 raptor was a one-pilot plane that changed the course of military aviation design.
February 22, 2006 - In a continuing shift of the retail industry to new platforms, it is announced that the one billionth song is downloaded from the internet music store, Apple iTunes. This shift comes at the expense of many brick and mortar chains, including Tower Records.
December 1, 2006 - United States manufacturing capacity and esteem wanes, signaled by the sale of the last shares of his General Motors stock by U.S. billionaire Kirk Kerkorian.
January 4, 2007 - The first female speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, Representative Nancy Pelosi of San Francisco, California, is sworn into office.
January 10, 2007 - President George W. Bush announces a troop surge of 21,500 for the war in Iraq to stem the violence at the request of new commander General Petraeus. This controversial policy begins to show positive signs once fully implemented during the summer months, with a reduction in violent attacks against coalition forces and Iraqi civilians. Progress on the political front within the Iraqi national government, however, does not keep pace with positive developments on the military front.
June 2, 2007 - A terror plot to blow up JFK International Airport in New York City is thwarted when four terrorists are arrested and charged with its plan.
July 1, 2008 - A report by the U.S. embassy in Iraq states that 15 of the 18 goals set for the Iraqi government have been met, largely due to the surge implemented over the last year. The increase of 21,500 United States troops, commonly known as the surge, reduced violence and restored order to the nation, allowing the government of Iraq to focus more on solving other problems needed to establish a stable nation.
October 3, 2008 - The United States Congress passes legislation, signed by President Bush, for a $700 billion bailout, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, giving the Treasury Department authority to assist distressed Wall Street and banking businesses of the United States due to the housing, banking, and subprime mortgage crises caused by excessive greed and speculation among Wall Street firms. This economic distress, coupled with oil prices above $140 per barrel during the summer, deepened the world economic crises that had been brewing all year. The bailout was supported by current President George W. Bush and both presidential candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain.
November 4, 2008 - Barack Obama, Democratic Senator from Illinois, the land of Abraham Lincoln, wins a landslide margin in the Electoral College, 365 to 173 in the election for the 44th President of the USA over John McCain, making him the first African-American president in the history of the United States of America.
January 20, 2009 - Barack Obama takes the oath of office for President of the United States, becoming the first African-American president in the history of the nation. The Democratic Senator from Illinois comes into the office on a message of Change. The city of Washington, D.C. hosts more than one million visitors to the inauguration, covering the National Mall in a way reminiscent of the Civil Rights March of Martin Luther King forty-six years earlier.
October 31, 2009 - The economic recession continues to deepen as jobless claims climb above 10.0%, reaching 10.2% with October's monthly figures. This occurs despite efforts by the Obama administration to ramp up massive government spending pushed by the $780 billion economic stimulus package passed earlier in the year.
December 1, 2009 - President Obama announces a surge of 30,000 additional troops to Afghanistan to stem increased efforts by the Taliban in the country. The surge, which was suggested by military officers, was not popular with the liberal base of the Democratic party which had put the President in power on a pledge to end both Middle Eastern wars. The war in Afghanistan, which started as a response to the terror attacks on 9/11/2001, and the war on terror in general, comes into focus again on December 25 when an airliner headed for Detroit is attacked by a Muslim extremist, 23-year-old Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, who attempts to detonate a bomb, but fails.
Top 10 Greatest Historical Rulers of all Time
A ruler has the power to change an entire society and the world around him/her. The world has witnessed numerous such rulers, who have worked for the betterment of the masses and have changed fortunes of their countries or kingdoms. However, there has been no dearth of disappointing rulers either.
In order to become a great ruler, an individual must possess many attributes. History remembers rulers who achieved great things, like creating peaceful societies, ending violence, gaining victory over other nations and striving for a better life and future for their people.
Others are Reading
Umar ibn al-Khatab (RA)
Umar ibn al-Khatab (RA) was a companion of the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and the second Caliph of Islam. During his reign of almost 10 years, the great ruler adopted a simple style of governance and brought about a number of revolutionary reforms and schemes for the betterment of the people. Some of the systems invented during his tenure in the 7th century, including the social security system, are adopted by many welfare states even in the current era.
The founding father of the Mongolians, Genghis Khan, is considered to be one of the finest militarists in world history, having conquered all parts of Central Asia and China.
Image courtesy: biography.com
Catherine The Great
She ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, and it was during her reign that Russia became one of the strongest countries in Europe. The Catherine era is considered to be the golden era in Russian history.
Akbar – The Great
Akbar was the third Mughal ruler in India. He became the King at a very early age and went on to rule the country for almost 50 years. He is known for his religious tolerance and a number of revolutionary schemes.
Alexander The Great
Whenever a historian will talk about the greatest rulers of all time, Alexander’s name will be right up there. He was a great militarist but died at a very early age.
Having ruled France from 1804 to 1815, Napolean is one of the most popular historic rulers.
Not remembered in good words by most, or respected much, Adolf Hitler is still considered one of the greatest rulers in terms of the number of people he commanded.
Joseph II was a Roman emperor in the 18th century, who worked for the betterment of his people.
Queen Elizabeth I
Having ruled Ireland and England in the 16th century, Queen Elizabeth is considered to be the greatest female ruler of all time.
Sher Shah Suri
He was a self-made warrior, who overthrew Humayun (a Mughal King) in the 16th century and introduced many great reforms. However, he faced death very early and could only rule for 5 years.
Powers and Abilities
Umar has a gifted intellect, and vast knowledge of magical lore. She has the ability to manipulate the force of magic for a variety of effects, including inter-dimensional teleportation, size transformations, time travel, transmutations, energy manifestations such as powerful concussive blasts, magically constructed animate beings, telepathy, illusion-casting, limited mind-control, etc. As ruler of the Dark Dimension, Umar's head was surrounded by a plume of mystic fire, the flames of regency.
Hazrat Umar (R.A) Life History
Hazrat Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs. He belonged to Banu Adi family tribe of Quraish in Makah. He was the second Caliph after Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A) and senior companion of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). If you look back in the history of Islam the people who played a great role in spreading Islam the one prominent name comes in your mind will be of Hazrat Umar (R.A).
Here we will are going to describe the biography of Hazrat Umar (R.A) in this article. There are lots a lot of things which can describe him and can learn about his early life, bravery, acceptance of Islam, caliphate period and much more. You can get all these information from our Hazrat Umar (R.A) – 2017 application which is available for andrioid and iPhone devices, get it for free for your device.
He was born in 583 A.C in Banu Adi family a tribe of Quraish in Makah. He was non-Muslim in the start and by occupation, he was a businessman. Before accepting Islam Umar (R.A) was one of the most extreme enemies of Muhammad (SAW).
Life during Youth
Hazrat Umar (R.A) was one of the educated people in Quraish family in that period of time when only a few people were literate and could read & write. He also got familiar with the art and science of genetics and knew the history of the Arabia. He was very brave Umar (R.A) was a well-known famous wrestler, debater, and a spirited person in his youth time. He was also famous for his flawless horse-riding skills. He was an intelligent person and a renowned public speaker and successful ambassador of Quraish.
Acceptance of Islam
Although Umar (R.A) had flawless intellectual and physical talents, unfortunately, he had not accepted the Messenger of Allah SWT and Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWW). He was one of the fanatic enemies of Prophet Muhammad (SAWW).
He opposed Islam and threatened to kill the Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW). When he was on his way to execute his plan to kill Holy Prophet (SAWW), he came to know about his sister and brother in law of embracing Islam. He went to his sister, Fatima`s house where her sister and his brother in law were being taught Quran by Khabab (R.A). He inquired about their acceptance of Islam and start quarreling with them. He slapped his sister in a way that she bled richly, after seeing his sister bleeding he calmed down out of the guilt and asked her sister to show me the pages where Quran is written. He recited the Quran after taking bath it was the beginning of Surah Ta Ha. Finally, he came to the verse:
“Indeed, I am Allah. There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance.” Quran [20:14]
He was greatly moved by the Holy verses after reading and approved them as the words of Allah. On hearing this Hazrat Khabbab (R.A), who had hidden in the house, came out from inside and said, “O Umar! Pleasing information for you. It seems that the prayer of the Muhammad (SAW) which he said last night has been answered in your favor. He prayed to Allah: “O Allah, strengthen Islam with either Umar b Khattab or Abu Jahl, whomsoever Thou pleased”.
Hazrat Umar then went to Muhammad (SAW). On seeing him, Muhammad (SAW) asked him, “Umar! What brings you here”? He said, “I am here to accept Islam “reflected through the air of Makah. That’s how he accepted Islam. He was 39 Years old when he accepted Islam.
Title of Al-Farooq
Muslims were not able to offer Salah publicly due to fear of chiefs of Quraish. But when Hazrat Umar (R.A) accepted Islam and came in the circle of Islam believers came openly as they knew no one has dared to face Umar (R.A). He was the one who first suggested the Holy Prophet (SAW) that they should perform Salah in the Holy Kaaba, where the Messenger of Allah for the first time led the Muslim prayer. Due to such fearless proposal of Hazrat Umar (R.A), he was given the title of Al-Farooq by Hazrat Muhammad (SAW), which means “the one who distinguishes between the right and the wrong”.
Hazrat Umar (R.A) as Caliph
After the death of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) Umar (R.A) was in deep sorrow at that time Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A) consoled him. At that time a dispute arose that who would take the responsibility after the death of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) then Umar (R.A) addressed Muslims about great character of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A) relating his closeness to Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and suggested to make him the first caliph of Islam. After the death of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A) Hazrat Umar (R.A) took the responsibility and became the second Caliph. He followed the footsteps of Muhammad (SAW) to the fullest extent. It was Hazrat Umar under whose rule Islam became an international power and the mighty empires of Persia and Byzantine collapse before the army of Islam. Within ten years of his glorious rule, the whole of the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and a part of Turkey came under the banner of Islam and the nations entered the layer of Islam.
He was not only a defeated but also an excellent administrator who originated an efficient system of administration, Hence he was the real founder of a political system of Islam. He imposed Divine Law) as the code of a newly formed International Islamic State he safeguarded the internal safety by introducing the police force: he gave stipends to the poor he constructed headquarters and forts for the safety of Islamic armies he founded new cities for the growth of Islamic culture and civilization he improved agriculture and economics of the Islamic State he founded the educational system in an Islamic State in brief he was the founder of a great Islamic State.
In short, Hazrat Umar (RA) is the role model for every Muslim. He was an embodiment of justice, principles, piety, humility, and character. He performed all his roles whether personal or professional with intensity and not a single example can be put forward which shows that he performed his role less than perfect.
The Pact of Umar
Last Saturday, in the Kenyan town of Machakos, representatives of Sudan's northern-based Muslim government joined with a Christian-led southern rebel faction to sign a protocol that could eventually end the country's 19-year civil war. While still short of a full peace accord, the accomplishment is impressive. To reach this détente after a bloody roller-coaster ride of ethnic and religious warfare, Sudan's Muslim rulers have had to back away from a pact supposedly as old as Islam itself.
The Pact of Umar, a document purportedly signed by the second caliph, Umar I (634-44), is the source of the restrictive regulations on non-Muslims embedded in the shari'a or Islamic law. In 1983, Sudan's northern Muslim government took a fundamentalist turn and imposed the shari'a on the Christian south. This triggered the warfare that has since killed more than 2 million Sudanese and displaced millions more.
Under shari'a, both Jewish and Christian minorities (dhimmi, or literally "protected peoples") have freedom to remain in Muslim countries but no freedom to recruit. Conversions can only be to Islam, not away from it.
Like other early and medieval documents with weighty consequences for politics and religion, Umar's pact is hard to pin down to a date. It may have originated as early as 673, after the Muslims conquered Christian Syria and Palestine. But scholars date the text in its current form to about the ninth century.
The pact is purportedly written by the conquered Christians themselves. In it, those Christian subjects gratefully receive the protection of their Muslim masters and in return agree to certain religious and social strictures:
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Jerusalem of Omar
Omar ibn Al-Khattab was born in Mecca sometime between 579 and 583 AD and was a member of the prominent Banu Adi clan of the Quraysh tribe. He was initially hostile to Mohammed and Islam and even took part in the persecution of Muslims before the first migration to Abyssinia (Ethiopia). He then converted to Islam in 616 AD and joined the Hegira (migration) from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD. Eventually, this would lead to the fall of Jerusalem in 638 AD according to the Biblical Timeline with World History.These Articles are Written by the Publishers of The Amazing Bible Timeline
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As Rashidun Caliph
A succession issue rose between his father-in-law Abu Bakr and son-in-law Ali (as well their supporters) upon the death of Mohammed. Abu Bakr, however, prevailed as Mohammed’s successor and leader of the ummah (Muslim community). Even without Islam’s first and most revered Prophet, Abu Bakr managed to bind together the Muslims during his short two-year rule and expand their territory first by going against the weakened Persian empire. The Byzantine Empire, once a powerful force in the Near East and Asia Minor, was also weakened by internal strife. This made the Byzantine provinces of Syria and Palestine (where Jerusalem was a part of) vulnerable to attacks by the newly-unified and stronger Muslim community. Damascus was first captured by Abu Bakr and his general Khalid, and they soon looked beyond the borders of Syria to conquer Palestine.
Abu Bakr, however, died at the height of his power as Caliph of the united ummah. He was sixty-one and unlike Mohammed before him, he had named his son-in-law Omar (also spelled Umar) as his successor. The new caliph realized that the practice of caravan raids could not sustain the community any longer now that Islam was embraced by most of the Arab tribes, so he looked for Christian and Persian territories to plunder as another way to sustain the ummah. This was also done to harness the energies of the community into one common goal and prevent the tribes from falling back into old blood feuds. It was under Omar’s leadership when the Muslims wrested large parts of Syria and Palestine from the Byzantine empire, while Jerusalem soon fell to the Muslims in 638 AD. With the fall of Syria and Palestine, much of the Middle East was now under Muslim rule.
Omar in Jerusalem
In spring of 638 AD, Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem officially surrendered the city to Omar. According to the treaty signed by both sides, Christians were allowed to live in the city and practice their religion but were compelled to pay jizya (tax for non-Muslims) to the Muslim conquerors. For the first time in hundreds of years, the Jews were also allowed to return and live in Jerusalem. Omar himself was invited by Patriarch Sophronius to come inside a Christian church, but he declined to prevent future Muslims from converting the church into a mosque. The caliph went home to Medina after he stayed ten days in Jerusalem.
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab Biography
The Second Muslim Caliph, Umar played a key role in the expansion of Islam following the death of the prophet Muhammad. Umar was considered a pious Muslim who played a role in compiling the first Quran. As Caliph, he oversaw an expansion of Arab conquests which saw a sustained expansion of Arab rule and the new Muslim religion.
Umar was born c. 585 AD in Mecca, Arabia (now Saudi Arabia). He was an influential member of the Adia Clan of the Meccan tribe of Quraysh – at that time following a polytheistic religion. He was tall, physically strong, a renowned wrestler and fighter. He also was well-educated, the time period, and a skilful orator for A charismatic figure he became an influential person in dealing with local politics and business. In his early days, he worked as a merchant.
Umar was originally one of the bitterest opponents of Muhammad and persecuted the new followers of Islam with cruelty at the time, he was committed to defending the old traditions of the Quraysh. However, in 616 AD at the age of 39, on his way to murder Muhammad, he underwent a radical transformation after being influenced by his friend and sister who had already converted. After being humbled by their devotion, he became a devoted follower and confidant of the prophet Muhammad.
Umar became influential in helping the new religion of Islam to be accepted by local residents. Umar had the courage to practise the new religious duties openly, without fear of retribution. However, due to ongoing friction with the authorities, in 622, Muhammad took Umar and his followers to Medina where there was greater safety.
Umar played a key role in collecting all the verses of the Qu’ran and having them published in one book. It was Umar who advised Abu Bakr to request Zayd ibn Thabit to compile the Quran into a single book.
After the death of the prophet Muhammad on 8 June 632, there was uncertainty over who would serve as his successor. Umar promptly supported the candidacy of Abu Bakr – a close associate and father-in-law of Muhammad. This helped prevent conflict over who would become leader. Though the decision is viewed negatively in the Shia tradition, who believe Ali ibn Abi Talib (cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad) to be the rightful successor to Muhammad.
After only two years, Abu Bakr died, but Abu Bakr had nominated Umar to be the second Caliph. Umar was Caliph for ten years from 634 to 644. During this time, Umar expanded the area of Arab conquest. Under Umar, the Arab armies took Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and entered Iraq and Iran. In all countries, the Arab armies were successful in creating one of the largest Empires of the time.
A key battle was the Battle of Qadisiya (637) which led to Arab armies defeating the Sassanid Empire of Persia and opening Iraq to the Muslim Arab armies.
As well as being military successful, Umar was successful in cementing the long-term success of the Empire. Arab armies were given strict instruction to allow the native population to continue with their peaceful occupations – so long as they paid tribute to the Empire. They were not forced to convert to the new religion, and the armies lived at a distance from the towns they conquered. Umar promoted out of loyalty, paid officers high salaries and sought to avoid corruption by allowing official complaints to be made against transgressors. Umar himself was known for his simple and austere lifestyle. This was in contrast to his pre-Islam days and also in contrast to the pomp and display many rulers displayed.
He devotedly followed the Muslim religion and, as ruler, was concerned with the well-being of the poor and disadvantaged. At the time, it was the custom to cut off the hands of thieves. However, Umar did not allow this to be carried out because he felt responsible for not being able to provide full employment for his citizens. In the latter part of his rule, he developed a form of the welfare state, which offered aid to both Muslim and non-Muslim poor, elderly and the disabled.
He used his skill as an orator to gain the loyalty of his subjects. Although he was often feared rather than loved. He cultivated the respect and authority of the population.
In 644, during a Hajj to Mecca, Umar was assassinated by stabbing by a Persian slave name Abu Lulu. Umar died on 3 November 644.
Citation: Pettinger, Tejvan. “Biography of Umar Ibn Al-Khattab ”, Oxford, www.biographyonline.net, 23/05/2014. Updated 22 June 2017.
Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources
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A Brief Biography Of Hazrat Umar (RA)
If Muslim history be taken into consideration, several names come up that laid a great foundation to the prosperity and spread of Islam. Among those names, the one prominent name is of Hazrat Umar (RA) who was the second Caliph of Muslims and under his reign Islam and Muslims enjoyed great prosperity and success.
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Hazrat Umar (RA) is considered one of the best role models for Muslims from different aspects. All the roles he undertook in his life are an ideal example for Muslims of every generation. The lines below give a brief biography of Hazrat Umar (RA).
Hazrat Umar (RA) was the son of Khattab. He was initially a non-Muslim but converted to Islam later. After his becoming Muslim, he was given the title of “Al-Farooq” meaning the one who distinguishes the right from wrong. His conversion to Islam is also one of the most remarkable events in Islamic history.
Before his passing away, Hazrat Abu-Bakar (RA) after consultation with other Sahaba, elected Hazrat Umar (RA) to take charge as Caliph after his passing away. Thus, he became the Second Caliph of Muslims.
Umar (RA) as Caliph:
All the four Caliph are renowned for one or another accomplishment. Hazrat Umar (RA) is recognized for his discipline, administration, and the conquests that took place during his reign. During his reign, the Islamic empire stretched to Persia, Rome and even brought Egypt under the Islamic flag. During his Khilaafat, he brought reforms and worked extensively on the welfare of his subjects.
Conquest over Romans:
In the reign of Hazrat Abu Bakkar (RA) Muslim army laid siege of Damascus. However, after his passing away, when Hazrat Umar (RA) took the charge,t he Muslim army under the leadership of Hazrat Khalid bin Walid (RA) conquered Damascus. The Governor of the city surrendered and a treaty was signed.
Appointing of New Commander:
Muslim armies were conquering areas leaps and bounds under the leadership of Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (RA). Seeing this, Hazrat Umar (RA) changed the commander and made, Hazrat Abu Ubaida bin Jarrah (RA) the new commander of Muslim army. The reason why he did this was, because he was afraid that Muslims will start associating all the victories with Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (RA) instead of thinking them from Allah. Secondly, all such victory and recognition might have brought arrogance in Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (RA), therefore, he called him back, and Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (RA) gladly obeyed his decision.
Victory over Persians:
After several sieges and defeats at the hands of Persians, Muslims at last achieved victory over Persians during the reign of Hazrat Umar (RA). He had to send several reinforcements to ensure that the Muslim army conquered the army of Rustum. Muslim army defeated Persians in 14 A.h.
In his reign, Muslims also conquered Jerusalem. The Christians of the city decided to accept defeat against the siege of Muslim army. The ruler of the city gave the keys to Hazrat Umar (RA) personally, and a treaty was signed that guaranteed the safety of citizens of the city.
Hazrat Umar (RA) brought numerous reforms in the governance during his reign. Some of the major reforms introduced by Hazrat Umar (RA) are:
- The establishment of Bait-ul-Maal (State’s treasury for people) was one of his major achievements.
- A proper Judicial system was established, where Magistrates and Judges would have courts and would decide on cases.
- Army headquarters were established for protection of country.
- Canals and roads were constructed.
- The Imams, Teachers and Moazzins were given pay in schools and Mosques.
- Prisons and Police station were built.
- The first Islamic Lunar calendar was established and the Hijrah system was initiated.
- Population census was made.
- Welfare homes and orphanages were built.
Hazrat Umar (RA) was assassinated by a Persian non-Muslim named Firoz. He stabbed Hazrat Umar (RA), as a result of which he passed away three days later on 1 st of Muharram.
In short, Hazrat Umar (RA) is the role model for every Muslim. He was an epitome of justice, principles, piety, humility and character. He performed all his roles whether personal or professional with due diligence and not a single example can be put forward that shows that he performed his role less than perfect.
May Allah Almighty provide us with the heart to live life the way Hazrat Umar (RA) lived and become a better Muslim. Ameen!