Treaty Of Peace With Germany-1921 - History

Treaty Of Peace With Germany-1921 - History



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[The preamble of the treaty recites the joint resolution of July 2, 1921.]

ARTICLE I.
Germany undertakes to accord to the United States, and the United States shall have and enjoy, all the rights, privileges, indemnities, reparations or advantages specified in the aforesaid Joint Resolution . [of July 2, I92I] . including all the rights and advantages stipulated for the benefit of the United States in the Treaty of Versailles which the United States shall fully enjoy notwithstanding the fact that such Treaty has not been ratified by the United States.

ARTICL E II.

(I) [The rights and advantages stipulated in the Treaty of Versailles] for the benefit of the United States, which it is
intended the United States shall have and enjoy, are those defined in Section 1, of Part IV, and Parts V, VI, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XV.
The United States in availing itself of the rights and advantages stipulated in the provisions of that Treaty mentioned in this paragraph will do so in a manner consistent with the rights accorded to Germany under such provisions.
(2) That the United States shall not be bound by the provisions of Part I of that Treaty, nor by any provisions of that Treaty including those mentioned in Paragraph (I) of this Article, which relate to the Covenant of the League of Nations, nor shall the United States be bound by any action taken by the League of Nations, or by the Council or by the Assembly thereof unless the United States shall expressly give its assent to such action.
(3) That the United States assumes no obligations under or with respect to the provisions of Part II, Part III, Sections 2 to 8 inclusive of Part IV, and Part XIII of that Treaty.
(4) That, while the United States is privileged to participate in the Reparation Commission, according to the terms of Part VIII of that Treaty, and in any other Commission established under the Treaty or under any agreement supplemental thereto, the United States is not bound to participate in any such commission unless it shall elect to do so.
(5) That the periods of time to which reference is made in Article 440 of the Treaty of Versailles shall run, with respect to any act or election on the part of the United States, from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.
[Seal.] Ellis Loring Dresel [Seal.] Rosen


US–Germany Peace Treaty

Signed at Berlin on August 25, 1921 came into force with the exchange of ratifications at Berlin on November 11, 1921.
Official texts in English: 42 Stat. 1939 TS 658 8 Bevans 145 12 LNTS 192.
This version compiled from versions published by the Australasian Legal Information Institute and Brigham Young University Library.

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND GERMANY,

CONSIDERING that the United States, acting in conjunction with its co-belligerents, entered into an armistice with Germany on November 11, 1918, in order that a Treaty of Peace might be concluded

CONSIDERING that the Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919, and came into force according to the terms of its Article 440, but has not been ratified by the United States

CONSIDERING that the Congress of the United States passed a joint resolution, approved by the President on July 2, 1921, which reads in part as follows:

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

that the state of war declared to exist between the Imperial German Government and the United States of America by the joint resolution of Congress approved April 6, 1917, is hereby declared at an end.

Sec. 2. That in making this declaration, and as a part of it, there are expressly reserved to the United States of America and its nationals any and all rights, privileges, indemnities, reparations, or advantages, together with the right to enforce the same, to which it or they have become entitled under the terms of the armistice signed November 11, 1918, or any extensions or modifications thereof or which were acquired by or are in the possession of the United States of America by reason of its participation in the war or to which its nationals have thereby become rightfully entitled or which, under the Treaty of Versailles, have been stipulated for its or their benefit or to which it is entitled as one of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers or to which it is entitled by virtue of any Act or Acts of Congress or otherwise.

Section 5. All property of the Imperial German Government, or its successor or successors, and of all German nationals, which was, on April 6, 1917, in or has since that date come into the possession or under control of, or has been the subject of a demand by the United States of America or of any of its officers, agents, or employees, from any source or by any agency whatsoever, and all property of the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government, or its successor or successors, and of all Austro-Hungarian nationals which was on December 7, 1917, in or has since that date come into the possession or under control of, or has been the subject of a demand by the United States of America or any of its officers, agents, or employees, from any source or by any agency whatsoever, shall be retained by the United States of America and no disposition thereof made, except as shall have been heretofore or specifically hereafter shall be provided by law until such time as the Imperial German Government and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government, or their successor or successors, shall have respectively made suitable provision for the satisfaction of all claims against said Governments respectively, of all persons, wheresoever domiciled, who owe permanent allegiance to the United States of America and who have suffered, through the acts of the Imperial German Government, or its agents, or the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government, or its agents, since July 31, 1914, loss, damage, or injury to their persons or property, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of shares of stock in German, Austro-Hungarian, American, or other corporations, or in consequence of hostilities or of any operations of war, or otherwise, and also shall have granted to persons owing permanent allegiance to the United States of America most-favoured-nation treatment, whether the same be national or otherwise, in all matters affecting residence, business, profession, trade, navigation, commerce and industrial property rights, and until the Imperial German Government and the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government, or their successor or successors, shall have respectively confirmed to the United States of America all fines, forfeitures, penalties, and seizures imposed or made by the United States of America during the war, whether in respect to the property of the Imperial German Government or German nationals or the Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Government or Austro-Hungarian nationals, and shall have waived any and all pecuniary claims against the United States of America."

BEING DESIROUS of restoring the friendly relations existing between the two nations prior to the outbreak of war:

Have for that purpose appointed their Plenipotentiaries—

The President of the United States of America: Ellis Loring Dresel, Commissioner of the United States of America to Germany and The President of the German Empire: Dr Friedrich Rosen, Minister for Foreign Affairs,

Who, having communicated their full powers, found to be in good and due from, have agreed as follows:

Germany undertakes to accord to the United States, and the United States shall have and enjoy, all the rights, privileges, indemnities, reparations or advantages specified in the aforesaid joint resolution of the Congress of the United States of July 2, 1921, including all the rights and advantages stipulated for the benefit of the United States in the Treaty of Versailles which the United States shall fully enjoy notwithstanding the fact that such Treaty has not been ratified by the United States.

With a view to defining more particularly the obligations of Germany under the foregoing Article with respect to certain provisions in the Treaty of Versailles, it is understood and agreed between the High Contracting Parties—

1. That the rights and advantages stipulated in that Treaty for the benefit of the United States, which it is intended the United States shall have and enjoy, are those defined in Section 1 of Part IV, and Parts V, VI, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIV and XV.

The United States in availing itself of the rights and advantage stipulated in the provisions of that Treaty mentioned in this paragraph will do so in a manner consistent with the rights accorded to Germany under such provisions.

2. That the United States shall not be bound by the provisions of Part I of that Treaty, nor by any provisions of that Treaty, including those mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article, which relate to the Covenant of the League of Nations, nor shall the United States be bound by any action taken by the League of Nations, or by the Council or by the Assembly thereof, unless the United States shall expressly give its consent to such action.

3. That the United States assumes no obligations under or with respect to the provisions of Part II, Part III, Sections 2 to 8, inclusive, of Part IV, and Part XIII of that Treaty.

4. That, while the United States is privileged to participate in the Reparation Commission, according to the terms of Part VIII of that Treaty, and in any other Commission established under the Treaty or under any Agreement supplemental thereto, the United States is not bound to participate in any such Commission unless it shall elect to do so.

5. That the periods of time to which reference is made in Article 440 of the Treaty of Versailles shall run, with respect to any act or election on the part of the United States, from the date of the coming into force of the present Treaty.

The present Treaty shall be ratified in accordance with the constitutional forms of the High Contracting Parties and shall take effect immediately on the exchange of ratifications, which shall take place as soon as possible at Berlin.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed this Treaty and have hereunto affixed their seals.


Treaty Of Peace With Germany-1921 - History

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The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were announced in June 1919. The German politicians were not consulted about the terms of the Treaty. They were shown the draft terms in May 1919. They complained bitterly, but the Allies did not take any notice of their complaints. Germany had very little choice but to sign the Treaty.

    The German army was limited to 100,000 men.

  • Germany had to pay for the damage caused by the war. The exact figure was not agreed until 1921 when it was set at £6,600 million, an enormous amount.

4. German territories and colonies

  • Alsace-Lorraine went to France
  • Eupen, Moresnet and Malmedy went to Belgium

  • The League of Nations was set up as an international 'police force'. The League was based on a Covenant (or agreement). The Covenant and the constitution of the League of Nations were part of the terms of the Treaty. Germany was not invited to join the League until it had shown that it could be a peace-loving country.

When the Treaty terms were announced in June 1919, there was a mixed reaction. The general opinion in Britain was that the terms were fair and should probably have been more severe. British newspapers suggested that Germany would no longer threaten world peace. Any complaints by the Germans were dismissed as trickery and play-acting. When Prime Minister David Lloyd George returned from Paris in June 1919, he received a hero's welcome. The king came out to meet him at the railway station, which was completely unheard of in British history.

Reactions in France were mixed. There were celebrations that the war was definitely over. People approved of the reparations that Germany had to pay. They also liked the fact that Germany's borders with France (the Rhineland) would be demilitarised. This meant Germany could not station any troops in this area. They appreciated that the coalmines of the Saar would bring prosperity to France instead of Germany. They also believed that the League of Nations would be a powerful force for peace. It would protect France if Germany recovered and tried to act aggressively again.

However, there was a strong sense that Germany still threatened France. Many French people looked at the terrible cost of the war and believed that France had suffered far more than Germany. Soon after the Treaty, Clemenceau stood for election as President of France. He was outraged when other candidates stood against him. It was then that he realised how bitter many people were about the Treaty.

In the USA reactions to the Treaty were generally negative. Many Americans felt that the Treaty was unfair on Germany. More importantly, they felt that Britain and France were making themselves rich at Germany's expense and that the USA should not be helping them to do this. This was not really the case, but many Americans believed it.

This was partly because American politics were deeply divided at the time. President Wilson led the Democratic Party. However, his rivals in the Republican Party dominated the US Congress. They used the Treaty as an opportunity to criticise Wilson. Wilson has to take some of the blame for this as he made little effort to consult the Republicans about the Treaty. Americans were also uneasy about Wilson's scheme for a League of Nations. They were concerned that belonging to the League would drag the USA into international disputes that were not their concern. In the end, the Congress rejected the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.

Reactions to the Treaty in Germany were very negative. There were protests in the German Reichstag (Parliament) and out on the streets. It is not hard to see why Germans were outraged. Germany lost 10% of its land, all its overseas colonies, 12.5% of its population, 16% of its coal and 48% of its iron industry. There were also the humiliating terms, which made Germany accept blame for the war, limit their armed forces and pay reparations.

Much criticism has been made of the Treaty because it was too harsh on Germany. On the other hand, historians have pointed out that Germany could have been treated a lot more harshly for several reasons:

  • Germany only accepted the Fourteen Points when it was clear they were losing the war.
  • In the harsh Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Germans took away 34% of Russia's population and 50% of its industry and made them pay 300 million gold roubles in reparations.
  • Clemenceau wanted the Treaty to be much harsher, with Germany broken up into smaller states, but Wilson stopped this happening.
  • The reparations payments cost Germany only 2% of its annual production.
  • Germany's main economic problem was not reparations but war debt, which it had planned to pay by winning the war and making other countries pay reparations.
  • In 1924, Germany received huge loans from the USA to help its economy recover.
  • The years 1924-29 were fairly prosperous for Germany. For example, Germany produced twice as much steel as Britain in 1925.

Some historians believe that the peacemakers did the best job they could, given the difficult circumstances they were in. Other historians believe the Treaty was a disastrous half measure. It damaged Germany enough to cause resentment. However, it left Germany strong enough to seek revenge.


Paris Peace Conference

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Paris Peace Conference, (1919–20), the meeting that inaugurated the international settlement after World War I.

Although hostilities had been brought formally to an end by a series of armistices between the Allies and their adversaries—that of Salonika (Thessaloníka) with Bulgaria on September 29, 1918, that of Mudros with Turkey on October 30, that of Villa Giusti with Austria-Hungary on November 3, and that of Rethondes with Germany on November 11—the conference did not open until January 18, 1919. This delay was attributable chiefly to the British prime minister, David Lloyd George, who chose to have his mandate confirmed by a general election before entering into negotiations.

Lloyd George’s arrival in Paris was followed on January 12, 1919, by a preliminary meeting of the French, British, U.S., and Italian heads of government and foreign ministers—respectively, Georges Clemenceau and Stephen Pichon Lloyd George and Arthur James Balfour Woodrow Wilson (who fell ill at the conference, probably having contracted the flu as the influenza pandemic of 1918–19 raged) and Robert Lansing and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and Sidney Sonnino—at which it was decided that they themselves, with the Japanese plenipotentiaries, would constitute a Supreme Council, or Council of Ten, to monopolize all the major decision making. In March, however, the Supreme Council was, for reasons of convenience, reduced to a Council of Four, numbering only the Western heads of government, as the chief Japanese plenipotentiary, Prince Saionji Kimmochi, abstained from concerning himself with matters of no interest to Japan. The foreign ministers continued to meet as a Council of Five dealing with secondary matters.

The five great powers likewise controlled the Supreme Economic Council, created in February 1919 to advise the conference on economic measures to be taken pending the negotiation of peace. Specialized commissions were appointed to study particular problems: the organization of a League of Nations and the drafting of its Covenant the determination of responsibility for the war and guarantees against a renewal of it reparations international labour legislation international ports, waterways, and railroads financial questions economic questions of a permanent sort aviation naval and military matters and territorial questions.

Major products of the conference were (1) the Covenant of the League of Nations, which was submitted in a first draft on February 14, 1919, and finally approved, in a revised version, on April 28, (2) the Treaty of Versailles, presented at last to a German delegation on May 7, 1919, and signed, after their remonstrances, on June 28, (3) the Treaty of Saint-Germain, presented to an Austrian delegation in a rough draft on June 2, 1919, and in a fuller version on July 20 and signed on September 10, and (4) the Treaty of Neuilly, presented to a Bulgarian delegation on September 19, 1919, and signed on November 27. There had been wrangling among the Allies over both the treaties with Germany and those with Austria. Concerning the former, the Americans and the British resisted French demands affecting Germany’s western frontier and the Polish demand, supported by France, for Danzig ( Gdańsk), while the Americans also objected to Japanese claims to Germany’s special privileges in Shantung (Shandong), China. Concerning the latter treaty, the Italians and the Yugoslavs quarreled over the partition of Austria’s former possessions on the Adriatic Sea.

The formal inauguration of the League of Nations on January 16, 1920, brought the Paris conference to an end, before the conclusion of treaties with Turkey (1920, 1923) or with Hungary (1920).

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.


Treaty of Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on November 11, 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on October 21, 1919.

Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required “Germany accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage” during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). This article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks (then $31.4 billion, roughly equivalent to USD $442 billion in 2017). At the time economists, notably John Maynard Keynes, predicted that the treaty was too harsh—a “Carthaginian peace”—and said the reparations figure was excessive and counter-productive, views that have since been the subject of ongoing debate by historians and economists from several countries. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently.

The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one content: Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened. The problems that arose from the treaty would lead to the Locarno Treaties, which improved relations between Germany and the other European Powers, and the renegotiation of the reparation system resulting in the Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, and the indefinite postponement of reparations at the Lausanne Conference of 1932.

Treaty of Versailles: The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors by Sir William Orpen. German Johannes Bell signs the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, with various Allied delegations sitting and standing in front of him.


Historical Events in 1921

Election of Interest

Jan 16 Eleftherios Venizelos becomes Prime Minister of Greece (4th time)

    William Archer's "Green Goddess" premieres in NYC Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras & El Salvador sign Pact of Union British submarine HMS K5 (which was unusually equipped with steam turbines) sinks with 57 crew during exercises in the Bay of Biscay Dagestan ASSR forms in RSFSR Mountain Autonomous Republic established in RSFSR Republic of Turkey declared out of remnants of Ottoman Empire

Event of Interest

Jan 21 Italian Communist Party founded at Livorno by Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci

Historic Publication

Jan 21 British crime writer Agatha Christie publishes her first novel "The Mysterious Affair at Styles" introducing the character Hercule Poirot

Film Release

Feb 6 "The Kid", silent film starring Charlie Chaplin & Jackie Coogan, released

Event of Interest

Feb 12 Winston Churchill becomes British Minister of Colonies

    Canadian 5 cent nickel coin is authorized Little Review faces obscenity charges for publishing "Ulysses," in New York Arthur Mailey completes 9-121 v England, Australian Test Cricket rec

Event of Interest

Feb 17 Arthur Honegger's chamber piece "Pastorale D'ete" premieres

    British troops occupy Dublin Riza Khan Pahlevi seizes control of Iran Constituent Assembly of the Democratic Republic of Georgia adopts the country's first constitution The London Conference on the Near East begins: the issue is the Allies' 1920 Treaty of Sevres, which had given part of Turkish Asia Minor to Greece 1st US transcontinental air mail flight arrives in NYC from San Francisco 1st transcontinental flight in 24 hrs flying time arrives in Florida

President Inaugurated

Mar 4 Warren G. Harding is inaugurated as the 29th President of the United States

    The Durban Land Alienation Ordinance passes, enabling the Durban City Council to exclude Indians from ownership or occupation of property in white areas, South Africa The US warns Costa Rica and Panama to settle disputes peacefully Police in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, issue an edict requiring Women to wear skirts at least 4 inches below the knee The Natal Indian Congress is resuscitated and reorganised at a meeting in Durban, with Ismail Gora as President

Event of Interest

Mar 7 Red Army under Trotsky attacks sailors of Kronstadt naval base near St Petersburg, Russia

    Spanish Premier Eduardo Dato Iradier is assassinated while exiting the parliament building in Madrid.

Conference of Interest

Mar 12 Cairo Conference begins, British meeting to determine Middle Eastern policies, Gertrude Bell and T. E. Lawrence attend

    Mongolia (formerly Outer Mongolia) declares independence from China Britain signs a trade agreement with the USSR and sends a trade mission to Moscow: this goes against the US, who in the same month refused to sign a trade agreement Dr Marie Stopes opens Britain's 1st birth control clinic in London

Event of Interest

Mar 17 Lenin proclaims New Economic Politics

    Sailors revolt in Kronstadt (thousands die) The Second Republic of Poland adopts the March Constitution. 2nd Peace of Riga, Poland enlarged Steamer "Hong Koh" runs aground off Swatow China killing 1,000 80th Grand National: Fred Rees wins aboard 100/9 bet Shaun Spadah winner is only horse to complete the course without falling Italian Fascists shoot from the Parenzana train at a group of children in Strunjan (Slovenia): two children are killed, two mangled and three wounded Upper Silesia votes for amalgamation with Germany in a plebiscite that is 63% in favor Walter Kerr Theater (Ritz, CBS, NBC, ABC) opens at 223 W 48th St NYC Germany announces it will be unable to meet its Great War reparation payments British coal miners goes on strike

Event of Interest

Apr 2 Albert Einstein lectures in New York City on his new "Theory of Relativity"

    Stanley Cup Final, Denman Arena, Vancouver, BC: Ottawa Senators (NHL) beat Vancouver Millionaires (PCHA), 2-1 for a 3-2 series victory

Election of Interest

Apr 7 Revolutionary leader, Sun Yat-sen is elected President of China at Canton, though China remains divided into north and south and subject to rivalries of warlords

    Iowa imposes 1st state cigarette tax KDKA broadcast 1st radio sporting event, a boxing match (Ray-Dundee) Turkestan ASSR forms in Russian SFSR

Event of Interest

May 5 Perfume Chanel No. 5 released by fashion designer Coco Chanel

    American Soccer League forms 47th Kentucky Derby: Charles Thompson on Behave Yourself wins 2:04.2 Sweden abolishes capital punishment Luigi Pirandello's "Sei Personaggi in Cerca d'Autore" premieres Tel Aviv is 1st all Jewish municipality The Allied Supreme Council warns Germany to pay reparations or the entire Ruhr Valley will be occupied Germany agrees National Hospital Day 1st observed in the United States Florence Allen is 1st woman judge to sentence a man to death in Ohio

Election of Interest

May 14 Mussolini's fascists obtain 29 parliamentary seats in Italian elections

    British Legion formed to care for ex-servicemen 46th Preakness: F Coltiletti aboard Broomspun wins in 1:54.2 Belgian and Luxembourg sign customs union US President Warren G. Harding opens (via telephone) 1st Valencia Orange Show Congress sharply curbs immigration, setting a national quota system Oldest radio station west of Mississippi River licensed in Greeley Co. Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake's musical "Shuffle Along" premieres on Broadway at Daly's 63rd Street Theatre, New York City [1] 1st parliament for Northern Ireland elected

Event of Interest

Jun 6 Southwark Bridge in London is opened to traffic by King George V and Queen Mary.

    53rd Belmont: Earl Sande riding Grey Lag wins in 2:16.8 Brazil adopts women's suffrage Yanks' pitcher Babe Ruth hits 2 HRs beating Tigers 11-8 Bessie Coleman reaches France as US 1st black pilot Census held in Great Britain Turks and Christians of Palestine sign a friendship treaty against Jews 11.5" (29.2 cm) of rainfall, Circle, Montana (state record) At the Imperial Conference in London, V.S. Srinivasa Sastri puts forward a case for the granting of full citizenship rights to Indians in South Africa and other British colonies HSC '21 soccer team forms in Haaksbergen The UK, the Dominions, and India, become the British Commonwealth of Nations

World Record

Jun 22 Paavo Nurmi runs world record 10,000m (30:40.2)

    British Open Men's Golf, St Andrews: former local Jock Hutchison (resident in US) wins his only Open Championship by 9 strokes in a 36-hole playoff over amateur Roger Wethered Charlie McCartney scores 300 in 205 mins Aust v Notts The South African Reserve Bank is established

Wimbledon Women's Tennis

Jul 1 Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Suzanne Lenglen of France beats doubles specialist Elizabeth Ryan 6-2, 6-0 for her 3rd straight Wimbledon singles title

    The Communist Party of China is founded and Chen Duxiu elected its leader Wimbledon Men's Tennis: Bill Tilden beats South African Brian Norton 4-6, 2-6, 6-1, 6-0, 7-5 for the third of 10 Grand Slam singles titles

Boxing Title Fight

Jul 2 In boxing's first million dollar gate ($1.7m), world heavyweight champion Jack Dempsey KOs Frenchman Georges Carpentier in round 4 of his 3rd title defence crowd 91,000 at Boyle's Thirty Acres in Jersey City, New Jersey

    Warren G. Harding signs a joint congressional resolution declaring the official end of war with Germany Mongolia gains independence from China (National Day)

Baseball Record

Jul 12 Babe Ruth sets record of 137 career home runs

    Indians (9) & Yankees (7) combine for an AL record 16 doubles Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti convicted of killing their shoe company's paymaster and sentenced to death, in Dedham Massachusetts

Event of Interest

Jul 16 Encouraged by the British, King Constantine of Greece launches a drive to take Asia Minor from nationalists under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

    Babe Ruth achieves 139 home runs and becomes the all-time home run leader in Major League Baseball, taking the title from Roger Connor Black Sox trial begins in Chicago Babe Ruth smacks a home run a MLB record 575 feet in New York Yankees' 10-1 win over the Tigers at Detroit's Navin Field

Event of Interest

Jul 20 Congresswoman Alice Mary Robertson becomes the first woman to preside over the floor of US House of Representatives

    Indians (9) & Yankees (7) hit a record 16 doubles To prove his contention that air power is superior to sea power, US Colonel William Mitchell demonstrates how bombs from planes can sink a captured German battleship

US Golf Open

Jul 22 US Open Men's Golf, Columbia CC: Englishman Jim Barnes wins the 3rd of his 4 major titles by 9 strokes ahead of runners-up Walter Hagen and Fred McLeod

    Chinese communist party forms under guidance of Henk Sneevliet Edward Gourdin of US sets long jump record at 25' 2 3/4" 15th Tour de France won by Leon Scieur of Belgium 2nd government of Ruijs de Beerenbrouck forms

Event of Interest

Jul 27 Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolate insulin at the University of Toronto

Event of Interest

Jul 29 Cleveland's 125th anniversary celebration: Cy Young, 54, pitches 2 inn

Event of Interest

Jul 29 Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party

    The Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) forms the party changed its name to the South African Communist Party (SACP) in 1953, after it had been forced underground Chicago jury brings in not guilty verdict against the Black Sox After 3 hours deliberation a Chicago jury acquits 8 Chicago White Sox accused in Black Sox scandal next day they are banned from organised baseball for life 1st aerial crop dusting in Troy, Ohio, to kill caterpillars MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Landis hands out life bans to 8 Chicago White Sox players accused in Black Sox scandal despite their acquittal by a Chicago jury KDKA Pittsburgh presents first radio broadcast of MLB Pirates beat Phillies, 8-0 Harold Arlin first play-by-play broadcaster Treaty of Berlin: US and Germany sign separate peace treaty Clason Point, Bronx to College Point, Queens muni ferry system begins Dutch cyclist Piet Moeskops wins the 1st of 4 straight, and 5 total world sprint championships when he beats defending champion Bob Spears of Australia in Copenhagen

Polio

Aug 10 FDR stricken with a paralytic illness at summer home on Canadian island of Campobello. At the time it was thought to be polio, but could possibly have been Guillain–Barré syndrome

Children with polio in a US hospital, inside an iron lung. In about 0.5% of cases, patients suffered from paralysis, sometimes resulting in the inability to breathe. More often, limbs would be paralyzed.

Event of Interest

Aug 13 Simon Kaufman & Marc Connelly's "Dulcy" premieres in NYC


The Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I, was drafted at the Paris Peace Conference in the spring of 1919 and shaped by the Big Four powers&mdashGreat Britain, France, Italy, and the United States. This souvenir copy of the Paris Peace Conference program is signed by President Woodrow Wilson and other world leaders.

The treaty would largely come to be seen as a failure for Wilson, however. Congress, concerned about conceding individual power in order to become a member of the League of Nations, refused to ratify it. Wilson had been the driving force behind the League of Nations, and while the other signatories of the treaty embraced the League, American isolationism quashed enthusiasm for it at home. This press statement, released as Wilson left office in 1921 by William Gibbs McAdoo&mdashwho was both Wilson&rsquos son-in-law and his treasury secretary&mdashdefends the President&rsquos handling of the Treaty of Versailles. McAdoo argued that Wilson had "laid the foundations of world peace and a new order" and made a "matchless contribution to his time" in the treaty. "Whatever may be the imperfections of the Treaty from a political or economic standpoint," McAdoo wrote, "Woodrow Wilson did not fail."

A full transcript is available.

Excerpt

I do not agree with those who hastily and inconsiderately adjudge the President&rsquos work at the Peace Conference a failure. Whatever may be the imperfections of the Treaty from a political or economic standpoint, Woodrow Wilson did not fail. The outstanding thing for which he fought, the thing that transcends political and economic considerations, is the permanent peace of the world. Unless this is secured all else is failure without this the sublimest hope of humanity is sunk in the black abyss without this all political and economic adjustments are unstable and sooner or later will disappear.


Treaty Of Peace With Germany-1921 - History

History of German-American Relations >
1901-1939: Early 20th Century

Germans in America | The German Language in the United States | German-American Relations

The Dawes Plan presented in 1924 by American banker Charles Dawes was designed to help Germany pay its World War I reparations debt. It eased Germany's payment schedule and provided for an international loan. In 1929, the Dawes Plan was replaced by the Young Plan which substituted a definite settlement that measured the exact extent of German obligations and reduced payments appreciably.

In 1928 Herbert Hoover, the first president of German ancestry, was elected.

The stock market crash of 1929 marked the end of an era of prosperity and led to the worst depression in American history. The German economy also faltered. Germany faced severe economic hardships, high unemployment, and runaway inflation. The days of the Weimar Republic were coming to an end.

The rise of Hitler's National Socialist Party and the resulting persecution of Jews and political dissidents brought about another break in German-American relations. However, an isolationist Congress and American public did not allow the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt to do much to resist Hitler's rise to power. The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934 was severed. After the "Reichskristallnacht" in 1938, the American ambassador was recalled but diplomatic relations were not severed.

A new wave of emigration from Germany to the United States occurred. These refugees from Nazi Germany included Albert Einstein, Thomas Mann, Kurt Weill and Marlene Dietrich, and other artists, scientists, musicians, and scholars. With the exception of the German-American Bund, with Fritz Kuhn as its "Führer," there was little Nazi support in the United States. Most German-Americans were loyal to the United States and indifferent to the appeal of international Nazism.


This Day In History: The Ukraine Signs A Peace Treaty With Germany (1918)

On this day in 1918, the Independent Republic of the Ukraine signed a peace Treaty with the Central Powers. This was the first peace treaty signed in World War I. The treaty was signed in Berlin and was announced to the world shortly after.

The Ukraine signed the treaty was the representatives of the Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and Turkey governments. All of the Central Powers recognized the independence of the Ukraine from Russia. They also agreed to enter into an agreement to provide military assistance to the Ukraine in the event of an effort by Russia to conquer the newly independent Republic. The Ukrainian government agreed to supply the Germans and other Central Powers with food. The Ukraine is one of the world&rsquos breadbaskets. It has some very fertile lands and has traditionally exported grain since the classical era.

Ukraine had begun to break away from the Russian Empire, only the previous year. When the Russian monarchy was deposed in the February 1917 the Empire practically disintegrated. Ukraine was initially declared an independent republic in the new Russian Republic. This changed when the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government. Many in Ukraine were opposed to the communists and came to believe that the country needed to be independent.

Led by the new Premier Vladimir Vynnychenko and War Minister Simon Petliura, the treaty proclaimed complete independence of Ukraine from Russia. Kiev was the capital of the new Ukrainian Republic. Lenin sent the newly formed Red Army into Ukraine in order to end the bid for independence. However, there was a large German force in the country and this helped the Ukrainian nationalists to drive the Reds out of the new Republic. Later, Lenin&rsquos government signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, and the Communists recognized the independence of the Ukraine.

Propaganda poster for the Ukranian Nationalist government. Wikimedia Commons

The Germans withdrew their forces from the Ukraine. The government of Lenin then tore up the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and invaded Ukraine. The new Republic had by now fallen into chaos, and the capital of Kiev had changed hands many times as various factions tried to control the country. The Red Army entered Kiev in 1919, and by 1921, brought the entire country under its control. Ukraine became one of the original republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and it remained part of the Soviet Union until 1991.


Great Peace of Montreal, 1701

A council separates into family groups to discuss important matters concerning the village, such as war. (artwork by Lewis Parker)

Background

The century of warfare between the French and the Five Nations Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) was marked by a series of military expeditions and guerrilla raids. It was initiated by Samuel de Champlain in 1609. He joined a war party of Algonquin and Huron-Wendat against the Mohawk of the Lake Champlain region. He thus inserted the French into the pre-existing web of alliances and enemies that characterized North American Indigenous conflict at the time. He did so in the interests of strengthening New France’s position in the fur trade.

Following this, there were indecisive conflicts with the Haudenosaunee under governors Daniel de Rémy de Courcelle in 1665, Joseph-Antoine Le Febvre de La Barre in 1684 and Marquis de Denonville in 1687. It was not until 1696 that Governor Frontenac was able to stop the Haudenosaunee raids on New France. He also destroyed the villages and food supplies of the Onondaga and Oneida. This greatly weakened the Haudenosaunee and motivated them to negotiate with the French.

Negotiations Begin

Following Frontenac’s death in November 1698, Louis-Hector de Callière was promoted from governor of Montreal. He became governor of all New France in the spring of 1699 and began looking for ways to end the wars. In July 1700, delegates from four of the Haudenosaunee nations (the Mohawk were absent) met with Governor de Callière to begin peace talks. A meeting of all the nations, including the five nations of the Haudenosaunee and all other nations allied with the French, was scheduled for the following summer in Montreal.

Thirty-nine nations sent a total of 1,300 delegates to discuss terms of collective action. (The population of Montreal at the time was about 1,200.) They came from as far as the Maritimes in the east and present-day Illinois in the west. The negotiations took several weeks and concluded on 4 August 1701. Through the Haudenosaunee condolence ceremony — the exchange of gifts and prisoners and the solemn “signing” of accords — the several nations agreed to remain at peace with each other. Governor de Callière had wampum belts commissioned for each Indigenous nation to commemorate the treaty.

In the peace treaty of 1701, pictograms represent the signatories of the various nations. For example, figure 1, a wading bird, represents Ouentsiouan of the Onondaga nation.

Terms and Significance

The Iroquois League pledged to allow French settlement at Detroit and to remain neutral in the event of a war between England and France. In exchange, the Haudenosaunee were permitted to trade freely and to obtain goods from the French at a reduced cost. All agreed that the governor general of New France would mediate disputes among them. This recognized a special kinship relationship with the French.

The Montreal accord brought peace that lasted until the British conquest of New France in 1760. The agreement assured New France superiority in dealing with issues related to the region’s First Nations. It also gave the French the freedom to expand militarily over the next half century. However, it also undermined the effectiveness of the Covenant Chain —the system of alliances between the Haudenosaunee and the Thirteen American Colonies. This led to worsening relations between them.

Anniversary Commemorations

To mark the 300th anniversary of the peace treaty in 2001, the Pointe-à-Callière museum of anthropology in Montreal hosted an exhibition of artifacts related to the accord, including the original manuscript. The City of Montreal also named part of Place d’Youville, Place de la Grande-Paix-de-Montréal. An obelisk marks the location where the treaty was signed.


Watch the video: The Other WW1 Peace Treaties: St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sèvres - GCSE u0026 IGCSE History Revision