March 17, 2017 Day 57 of the First Year - History

March 17, 2017 Day 57 of the First Year - History

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9:30AM THE PRESIDENT meets with the Republican Study Committee

Oval Office

In-Town Travel Pool Spray (Final Gather 9:20AM – Briefing Room Doors)

10:00AM THE PRESIDENT leads a listening session on Veterans’ Affairs

Roosevelt Room

11:20AM THE PRESIDENT welcomes Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany

West Wing Lobby

11:30AM THE PRESIDENT meets with Chancellor Merkel

Oval Office

11:45AM THE PRESIDENT leads a bilateral meeting with Chancellor Merkel

Oval Office

12:30PM THE PRESIDENT leads a roundtable discussion on vocational training with United States and German business leaders

Cabinet Room

1:20PM THE PRESIDENT and Chancellor Merkel hold a joint press conference

East Room

1:50PM THE PRESIDENT has a working luncheon with Chancellor Merkel

State Dining Room

Closed Press

Virginia Gate

Joint Base Andrews

4:00PM THE PRESIDENT departs the White House en route to Joint Base Andrews

South Lawn

4:20PM THE PRESIDENT departs Joint Base Andrews en route to West Palm Beach, Florida

Joint Base Andrews

Out-of-Town Travel Pool

6:35PM THE PRESIDENT arrives in West Palm Beach, Florida

Palm Beach International Airport

Historical Events on March 7

Roman Empire

321 Roman Emperor Constantine I decrees that the dies Solis Invicti (sun-day) is the day of rest in the Empire

    Conrad II von Hohenstaufen re-elected German king Condemnation of 219 philosophical and theological theses by Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris.

Event of Interest

1530 English King Henry VIII's divorce request is denied by the Pope

    Christian fleet under Gian Andrea lands at Djerba, North Africa Turkey & Venice sign peace treaty John Pieterszoon Coen's troops land on Lontor, East Indies

Event of Interest

1633 Prince Frederick Henry appoints himself viceroy of Limburg

Event of Interest

1696 English King William III departs Netherlands

Event of Interest

1774 King George III charges colonists in Boston with attempting to injure British commerce, paving the way for the closing of the port to punish colonists for the Boston Tea Party

Historic Discovery

1778 Captain James Cook 1st sights Oregon coast at Yaquina Bay

Event of Interest

1785 James Hutton, geologist, presents his full theory of uniformitarianism at a meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

    The French army enters Rome: the birth of the Roman Republic The Royal Institution of Great Britain founded dedicated to scientific research and education.

Victory in Battle

1814 Napoleon I of France wins the Battle of Craonne against combined Russian and Prussian force in northern France

    Giacomo Meyerbeers opera "Il Crociati in Egitto" (The Crusader in Egypt) premieres at La Fenice in Venice with famous castrato Giovanni Battista Velluti singing Shrigley Abduction: Ellen Turner, a wealthy heiress in Cheshire, England, is abducted by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a future politician in colonial New Zealand HMS Beagle returns from Concepcion to Valparaiso 1st Catholic governor in US, Edward Kavanagh of Maine, takes office US General Scott occupies Vera Cruz, Mexico In Hawaii, Great Mahele (division of lands) signed

Compromise of 1850

1850 Daniel Webster endorses Compromise of 1850

    Poll tax levied on Russo-Polish Jews entering Austrian Galicia ends Dutch telegraph traffic regulated by law Charles Miller patents 1st US sewing machine to stitch buttonholes 17th Grand National: John Hanlon wins aboard Irish horse Wanderer at 25/1 Baseball decides 9 innings constitutes an official game, not 9 runs 22nd Grand National: Tommy Pickernell wins aboard Irish horse Anatis at 5/1 Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, Day 2, Generals Ben McCulloch & James McIntosh killed -10] Battles around Kinston, North Carolina 28th Grand National: 1852 winner Alec Goodman wins his second GN aboard Irish 40/1 outsider Salamander Cincinnati Red Stockings, 1st pro BB team, begin 8-mo tour of Midwest & East

Alexander Graham Bell Patents the Telephone

1876 Alexander Graham Bell receives a patent for the telephone in the US

    Battle at Gura: Ethiopian emperor Yohannes beats Egyptians Southern University opens in New Orleans North Carolina State University is founded by the North Carolina General Assembly. Gilbert & Sullivan's last operette "Grand Duke" premieres in London Battle at Poplar Grove South Africa, President Kruger flees Boers beat British troops at Tweebosch, Transvaal

Historic Publication

1905 Arthur Conan Doyle publishes "The Return of Sherlock Holmes" collection in London after public pressure to revive his famous detective (Feb New York)

    Finnish Senate accepts universal suffrage, except for poor Cincinnati Mayor Mark Breith stands before city council and announces that, "women are not physically fit to operate automobiles" US sends 20,000 troops to Mexican border Willis Farnsworth of Petaluma, California, patents coin-operated locker

Scientific Discovery

1912 Roald Amundsen announces his discovery of the South Pole (located 14 December 1911)

    Prince Wilhelm von Wied becomes King of Albania 1st jazz record released on a 78 by Original Dixieland Jass Band for the Victor Talking Machine Company ("Dixie Jazz Band One Step," one side "Livery Stable Blues" other) H Carroll & J McCarthy's musical "Oh, Look!" premieres in NYC

Event of Interest

1918 President Woodrow Wilson authorizes US Army's Distinguished Service Medal

Event of Interest

1921 Red Army under Trotsky attacks sailors of Kronstadt naval base near St Petersburg, Russia

    US Ladies' Figure Skating championship won by Theresa Weld Blanchard US Men's Figure Skating championship won by Sherwin Badger

Event of Interest

1923 Carlos Gardel applies for Argentine citizenship

    American Negro Congress organizes 1st transatlantic telephone call (London-NY) Earthquake measuring 8 on Richter scale strikes Tango, Japan

Event of Interest

1929 First nonstop flight made from America to Asia across the Bering Strait (Nome to North Cape) by Noel Wien and Calvin Cripe for Wien Air Alaska

    Georgetown High of Chicago defeats Homer 1-0 in basketball NY Times agrees to capitalize the n in "Negro" Riots at Ford factory in Dearborn, Michigan, 4 killed Saar incorporated into Germany Malcolm Campbell sets world land speed record speed of 276.71 mph driving his famous Blue Bird car last record set at Daytona Beach, Florida

Treaty of Interest

1936 Adolf Hitler breaks the Treaty of Versailles by sending troops into the Rhineland

    Bucharin, Jagoda & Rykov pushed out of CPSU in USSR Glamour magazine begins publishing Guy Lombardo & Royal Canadians 1st record "Auld Lang Syne" Montreal Canadiens lose record tying NHL 15th straight game at home

Event of Interest

1940 Ray Steele beats B Nagurski in St Louis, to become wrestling champ

Event of Interest

1943 US General George S. Patton arrives in Djebel Kouif, Tunisia

    Japan begins offensive in Burma Attack on car of Netherlands SS Police Chief Hans Rauter by Dutch resistance, Rauter injured Cologne taken by allied armies US 9th Armoured Division attacks Remagen Germany, crosses Rhine

Event of Interest

1945 Yugoslavia government of Josep Broz Tito forms

    "Three to Make Ready" opens at Adelphi Theater NYC for 323 performances Max Frisch' play "Santa Cruz" premieres in Zurich

Academy Awards

1946 18th Academy Awards: "The Lost Weekend" Ray Milland & Joan Crawford win

Bikini Atoll is Evacuated

1946 Bikini Atoll islanders are evacuated by the US government to make way for a nuclear testing site

    The Kuomintang and Communist Party of China resume full-fledged Civil War. The Dodecanese islands officially become part of Greece again, ending Italian rule Ice Pairs Championship at London won by K Kennedy & P Kennedy (USA) Ladies' Figure Skating Championship in London won by Alena Vrzanova CZE Men's Figure Skating Championship in London won by Richard Button (USA)

Boxing Title Fight

1951 Ezzard Charles beats Jersey Joe Walcott in 15 for 2nd time to win National Boxing Association world heavyweight title

Theater Premiere

1951 Lillian Hellman's play "Autumn Garden" premieres on Broadway in NYC

    Jackie McGlew scores 255* for South Africa v NZ at Wellington Russia wins their 1st international ice hockey competition

Emmy Awards

1955 7th Emmy Awards: "Make Room for Daddy", Danny Thomas & Loretta Young win

Television Debut

1955 Musical "Peter Pan", starring Mary Martin broadcast live on NBC as part of "Producers' Showcase" series attracts a then record 65 million viewers

    Chicago Cardinals announce they will play their 1958 opener in Buffalo "Bells Are Ringing" closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 925 performances 1st aviator to fly a million miles (1.61 M km) in a jet (MC Garlow) West Indies all out 76 v Pakistan at Dacca, Fazal Mahmood 6-34 6th ACC Men's Basketball Tournament: NC State beats North Carolina, 80-56 Dutch Builders strike for CLA The Beatles made their broadcasting debut on BBC radio Launch of OSO 1, 1st astronomy satellite (solar flare data) Ground-breaking report "Smoking and Health" published by the British Royal College of Physicians, first major report to warn of the dangers of smoking

Event of Interest

1963 John Coltrane and Johnny Hartman recorded their self-titled album "John Coltrane and Johnny Hartman" at Van Gelder Studio, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

Event of Interest

1965 Alabama state troopers and 600 black protesters clash in Selma during "Bloody Sunday", protesters, including future congressman John Lewis beaten and hospitalized

    Bruce Taylor takes 5-86 in debut innings for NZ after ton Christian-democrats win parliament in Chile "Wait A Minim!" opens at John Golden Theater NYC for 457 performances

Election of Interest

1973 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's Awami League wins election in Bangladesh

    "USS Monitor", Union Ship sunk in 1862 during US Civil War, restored at Cape Hatteras 1st general strike in Ethiopia US Senate revises filibuster rule, allows 60 senators to limit debate US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site "Mirror", Russian film directed by Andrei Tarkovsky, starring Margarita Terekhova and Ignat Daniltsev, is released

Album Release

1975 RCA releases "Young Americans", David Bowie's 9th studio album, recorded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and New York City featuring appearances by John Lennon on two tracks, it peaks in the U.S. charts at No. 9, and No. 2 in the U.K.

    Morocco & Mauretania break diplomatic relations with Algeria Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party wins elections

Meeting of Interest

1977 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin meets US President Jimmy Carter

    Belgian baron Charles Bracht kidnapped Canuck's Ron Sedlbauer fails on 5th penalty shot against Islanders Dutch 2nd Chamber votes against neutron bomb Baseball exhibition season opens with semi-pro & amateur umpires Warren Giles and Hack Wilson selected for the Baseball Hall of Fame

Film and TV Awards

    Michael Stewart's musical "Bring Back Birdie" closes at Martin Beck Theater, NYC, after 4 performances 1st homicide at Disneyland, 18 year old is stabbed to death 28th ACC Men's Basketball Tournament: North Carolina beats Maryland, 61-60 22nd SEC Men's Basketball Tournament: Ole Miss beats Georgia, 66-62 Jarmilla Kratochvilova run world record 400 m indoor (49.59 sec) NCAA Tournament Selection televised live for 1st time 29th ACC Men's Basketball Tournament: North Carolina beats Virginia, 47-45 TNN (The Nashville Network) begins on Cable TV The United States attacks San Juan del Sur in Nicaragua. IBM-PC DOS Version 3.1 (update) released

NHL Record

1986 Wayne Gretzky breaks own NHL season record with 136th assist

Boxing Title Fight

1987 Mike Tyson beats James 'Bonecrusher' Smith by unanimous decision in 12 rounds in Las Vegas for WBC / WBA heavyweight boxing titles

Event of Interest

1988 Howard Stern's 1st pay-per-view "Underpants & Negligee Party"

    Jim Abbott, 1-handed pitcher, wins 58th James E Sullivan Award Colombia becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty

Event of Interest

1989 Iran drops diplomatic relations with Britain over Salman Rushdie's book "Satanic Verses"

Event of Interest

1989 Dino Ciccarelli is traded by the Minnesota North Stars to the Washington Capitals

    3 passengers killed & 162 injured as subway train derails (Philadelphia) Wayne Huizenga buys ½ of Joe Robbie Stadium and 15% of Dolphins for $30m Iraq continues to explode oil fields in Kuwait Nicole Stevenson swims world record 200m backstroke (2:06.78) England routs Wales, 24-0 at Twickenham for it's 2nd straight outright Five Nations Rugby Championship, Grand Slam and Triple Crown titles fullback Jonathan Webb 2 penalties and 3 conversions Diff'rent Strokes actor Todd Bridges arrested for stabbing a tenant 8th American Comedy Award: Carrot Top Charles Taylor resigns as President of Liberia David Platt appointed captain of English football team US Navy issues 1st permanent order assigning women on combat ship

Event of Interest

1994 ANC chief Nelson Mandela rejects demand by white right-wingers for separate homeland in South Africa

    The United States Supreme Court rules in Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc.that parodies of an original work are generally covered by the doctrine of fair use. US dollar worth record 1.5330 Dutch guilders NY becomes 38th state to have the death penalty 1st surface photos of Pluto (photographed by Hubble Space Telescope) British Steel in Workington wins Lithuanian multi-million pound order

Event of Interest

1996 Magic Johnson is 2nd NBA player to reach 10,000 career assists

    The first democratically elected Palestinian parliament formed Athens, Buenos Aires, Cape Town, Rome & Stockholm are finalists for 2004 Olympics site 5 sue Japanese PM Ryutaro Hashimoto, because his smoking has violated the country's constitution guaranteeing a wholesome life 19th Big East Men's Basketball Tournament: Connecticut beats Syracuse, 69-64 46th ACC Men's Basketball Tournament: #1 Duke beats #15 North Carolina, 96-73 40th SEC Men's Basketball Tournament: Kentucky beats Arkansas, 76-63 New Democracy wins the national elections in Greece. Mass protest outside the National Assembly of Kuwait building for women's voting rights in Kuwait. British House of Commons votes to make the upper chamber, the House of Lords, 100% elected

Event of Interest

2009 Despite only being 17 years old, Brazilian soccer star Neymar makes his professional debut for Santos

Obama’s approval rating from his first day to his last, in charts

US president Barack Obama will leave office with an approval rating of 57% according to a survey from the polling firm Gallup taken from Jan. 9-15, 2017. Obama’s exiting approval rating is 23 percentage points higher than former US president George W. Bush’s when he left office, but nine points lower than Bill Clinton’s.

Although still popular, Obama’s approval rating is 10 points lower than when he took office. This is fairly typical. Seven out of the 11 presidents that have served since Gallup started tracking approval ratings left office with a lower rating than they started with. For example, Ronald Reagan’s was 10% higher than when he started, while Lyndon Johnson ended up more than 30% lower. Obama’s approval rating reached its nadir of 40% in late 2014, but has been climbing over the last several years.

Not every group’s approval of Obama has changed to the same degree. In fact, among some groups he is as popular as ever.

The greatest divergence in Obama’s popularity was along racial/ethnic lines. While Obama’s approval plummeted among whites during his presidency, it increased slightly among nonwhites overall, due to a six point jump among blacks and a relatively small dip with Hispanics. These are the only groups for which Gallup has published detailed data.

Changes in Obama’s approval rating also differed significantly by age group. Among 18-29 year olds, Obama’s popularity has barely budged, while it has seen a double digit decline in every other age group.

The very largest deviations are based in party affiliation. Democrats loved Obama from the beginning, but not to the extent they do now: they are nearly universally happy with him in 2017. At the same time, Obama’s popularity with Republicans has plummeted. It may be hard to believe, but when Obama was inaugurated, his approval rating among Republicans was above 40%. Within eight months, it fell below 20%, and never rose above that threshold again. Today, it’s at just 17%.

According to a Gallup poll taken from Jan. 4-8, 2017 US president-elect Donald Trump’s favorability rating sits at 40%. This is extremely low for an incoming president—each of the last three presidents entered with favorability ratings above 60%. Upon Trump’s inauguration, the US will move from having a generally well-liked leader to having one that is historically unpopular.

2021 Theme
The NWHA Women’s History 2021 theme
Valiant Women of the Vote: Refusing to be Silenced
continues to celebrate the Suffrage Centennial

A victory as important as women winning the right to vote deserves an extended celebration. That’s why the National Women’s History Alliance is leading the drive to celebrate women’s historic achievement throughout 2021.

While 2020 was a very challenging year, for the NWHA it was also an amazing year of discovery and partnership. After 40 years of championing women’s history, we were overjoyed to connect with and promote hundreds of amazing suffrage centennial events organized by people and groups at the local, state and national levels. The array of current women’s history organizations and the new research and resources they have been producing is dazzling.

There have been many breakthroughs associated with the suffrage centennial because it involved many groups and government bodies throughout the country learning about the importance of women’s history for the very first time. Now, we want to push ahead to secure the progress we’ve made and ensure that multicultural women are never again overlooked in American history.

Extending the Centennial through 2021

Friends celebrating the women’s suffrage centennial,

We hope all of you are well. In addition to the other worries related to the COVID virus, it’s likely that you are discouraged that your long planned activities to celebrate the suffrage centennial have not or may not come to pass. This is a big disappointment for us all.

However, we are committed to recognizing the women’s suffrage centennial despite the challenges we face. While there is every reason to feel discouraged, we can embrace the behavior of the women we celebrate – and adapt and persevere!

After consulting with many of you around the country, we believe it’s important to encourage the extension of the suffrage centennial through 2021. Many groups, individuals and institutions are already making plans. With this larger timeline in mind, we can continue throughout 2020 as much as possible, and then use 2021 to make up for the dislocation caused by the virus and even create new tributes. We can’t let the virus overwhelm recognition of women’s historic breakthrough. We can reclaim and make the most of the lost time.

We all hope and plan for events and exhibits to reopen relatively soon. But regardless, since the 100th anniversary year lasts until August 26, 2021, we suggest that organizations begin now to consider and plan for a clear and deliberate extension of centennial-related commemorations into 2021. The sooner we let partners, institutions and the media know the better. We realize that some groups will not want to or be able to do this, but we anticipate that many will.

Our two organizations will continue to share useful resources and information about how our community is coping and planning for the future. Please keep us updated on your activity. We appreciate your news, ideas, feedback and cooperation.

In the meantime, there are countless centennial resources to take advantage of online. The NWHA’s “Women Win the Vote” Gazette has hundreds of links plus state and national news – download from NWHA site. Also point people to, where they can learn more.

We are very grateful that the Rose Parade Float and so many suffrage centennial events took place during the first few months of 2020. And we know that, after this challenge passes, great opportunities lie ahead.

National Women’s History Alliance and the 2020 Women’s Vote Centennial Initiative

Centennial Catalog – View Here

This catalog was created by the National Women’s History Alliance to make more people aware of the women’s suffrage centennial efforts in each state and nationally.

These exciting State Centennial group websites offer a wide array of resources, new research, information on state history and local suffragists, calendars of events, curricula, links, and more.

Nearly half have stores and all offer information, educational materials, and historical background that make each site a rich and rewarding attraction. There are plenty of examples and new ideas here.

The NWHA makes no guarantees and makes no money from this catalog. It is offered as a contribution to the goal of reimagining and rewriting our history to celebrate the lives and accomplishments of multicultural American women.

Updated Suffrage Gazette Celebrates What Women Achieved

In keeping with an expanded online presence and the promotion of the 2020 Women’s Suffrage Centennial, the National Women’s History Alliance is proud to announce Volume 2 of the “Women Win the Vote” Gazette, now available for free download above on this page.

Despite the interruption of the pandemic, celebrations of women’s historic achievement in winning the 19th Amendment will not be silenced. Suffragists, too, faced a deadly virus – and a war – while trying to win the key state of New York in 1917. Their strength is our inspiration.

This updated 28-page “Women Win the Vote” Gazette is a treasure chest. It is full of national news, leads to groups in every state and hundreds of links to exceptional women’s history and suffrage-related resources.

There are listings and links to museum shows and websites, educational projects, toolkits, statues and memorials, historic sites, online exhibits and curriculum, special educational and voting projects, plays, musicals, films, videos, books, suffrage music, songwriters, artists, performers and more.

“Women Win the Vote” also includes articles on Iroquois and Black women, short biographies of 100 Suffragists, and a host of products that celebrate the centennial. It would take hours to explore the treasures listed here, and to take in the many enriching stories and presentations that are now freely available online.

This uncertain time offers the opportunity to explore our heritage further, to interest children and deepen our own understanding of what women, and men, went through before us to advance the common good. As we are so often reminded, our history is our strength.

Legal and Operational Troubles

Like many Fortune 500 companies, Walmart has had its fair share of legal and public relations troubles. It&aposs also taking steps to be more involved in cultural trends and vexing social and cultural issues.

Exhibit "A" is Walmart&aposs recent decision to stop selling short-barrel rifle and handgun ammunition in the aftermath of tragic, yet high-profile mass shootings in El Paso, Texas (at a Walmart store) and Dayton, Ohio. The retailer has also banned open carry handguns in its stores, with only sanctioned law enforcement officers approved to bring firearms into stores.

The company&aposs history of legal troubles may have motivated Walmart to get ahead of the nation&aposs firearms debate.

The company&aposs legal woes date back to 1999, when Walmart sued the nation&aposs leading retail worker&aposs union, United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, from organizing. The Arkansas Supreme Court wound up ruling against Walmart in 2002.

The next year the company was sued over charges it didn&apost offer workers paid overtime, leading to a class-action lawsuit.

The same year a group of Walmart workers in one of its meat departments voted to unionize. Walmart quickly responded by opting to eliminate the meat department in 179 of its outlets, deciding instead to sell packaged meat. In 2003, a court ruled against Walmart for closing down its meat departments without proper consultation of workers.

In 2006, the company had to pay out $78 million to employees in violation of a Pennsylvania state law that mandated workers must be paid for overtime work, and work completed in an "off the clock manner.

In 2008, a wrongful death lawsuit filed against Walmart made the headlines, with a store service employee, Jdimytai Damour, killed in a consumer shopping stampede on Black Friday in a Valley Stream, N.Y. Walmart store.

The company wound up only paying a small fine for the incident, after agreeing to a deal with the U.S. Department of Labor&aposs Occupational Safety and Health Administration who charged Walmart with inadequate crowd management.

Head Start History

Explore key moments in Head Start history with an interactive timeline Visit disclaimer page . Access archival photographs, videos, resources, and more.

In January 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a "war on poverty" in his State of the Union address. The government was influenced by new research on the effects of poverty, as well as its impact on education. This research indicated an obligation to help disadvantaged groups, compensating for inequality in social or economic conditions.

Sargent Shriver soon took the lead in assembling a panel of experts to develop a comprehensive child development program that would help communities meet the needs of disadvantaged preschool children. Among these experts were Dr. Robert Cooke, a pediatrician at Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Edward Zigler, a professor of psychology and director of the Child Study Center at Yale University.

The Head Start program Visit disclaimer page began as an eight-week demonstration project designed to help break the cycle of poverty, It provided preschool children from low-income families with a comprehensive program to meet their emotional, social, health, nutritional, and educational needs. A key tenet of the program established that it be culturally responsive to the communities served, and that the communities have an investment in its success through the contribution of volunteer hours and other donations as non-federal share.

The Head Start Program Performance Standards (HSPPS) Visit disclaimer page , the regulations governing Head Start programs, were originally published in 1975. In 1995, the first Early Head Start grants were awarded to serve low-income pregnant women and children ages birth to 3. In 1998, the Head Start program was reauthorized to expand to full-day and full-year services. The Head Start program, to include Early Head Start, was most recently reauthorized in 2007 with bipartisan support.

The Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007 Visit disclaimer page introduced several provisions to strengthen Head Start quality. These included:

  • Alignment of Head Start school readiness goals with state early learning standards
  • Higher qualifications for the Head Start teaching workforce
  • State Advisory Councils on Early Care and Education in every state
  • Increased program monitoring, including a review of child outcomes and annual financial audits
  • Redesign of the Office of Head Start training and technical assistance systemVisit disclaimer page to support programs' success through National Centers and state-based systems
  • Development of a system of designation renewal for grants
  • Revision of the HSPPS

In 2011, the Designation Renewal System (DRS) Visit disclaimer page established five-year grant periods for all Head Start service awards. Any agency which met a specified condition Visit disclaimer page during the course of the grant period would not be eligible for funding without competition. Instead, interested agencies would be given the opportunity to compete to provide Head Start and Early Head Start services in that area through a funding opportunity announcement (FOA) Visit disclaimer page . Many agencies receive additional five-year grants without competing for funding.

In 2016, the HSPPS Visit disclaimer page were revised to incorporate findings from scientific research and reflect best practices and lessons learned from program innovation. They also integrated recommendations from the Secretary’s Advisory Committee Final Report on Head Start Research and Evaluation. The new Performance Standards reduced the number of Head Start regulatory standards by approximately 30% and improved regulatory clarity and transparency.

Butterflies are taking flight at the museum! Walk among beautiful butterflies in our seasonal Butterfly Pavilion. This springtime exhibition features hundreds of butterflies, colorful native plants, and plenty of natural light to help you see these creatures shimmer. With lots of flight space and a variety of resting spots, come get one of the best views in Los Angeles of these amazing insects.

Butterflies resting on flowers.

Borrow a magnifying glass to take a closer look.

Butterflies resting on flowers.

Borrow a magnifying glass to take a closer look.


  • Watch butterflies use their tubular mouthparts to obtain nectar.
  • See caterpillars feeding on leaves.
  • Count up to 30 different species, including California natives like the mourning cloak and buckeye.
  • Chat with museum educators and live animals keepers to find out what makes these animals so special.

This exhibition includes live animals. Did you know the museum has a team of professional animal keepers on site 365 days a year? They take excellent care of all animals on exhibit at the museum, utilizing the natural history expertise of our scientists as well as our veterinarian, who advises on any medical and nutritional needs. Because even a frog needs a doctor sometimes.

55d. The Antiwar Movement

Following Richard Nixon's announcement that U.S. troops would be sent into Cambodia, protests began on college campuses throughout the nation. At Kent State University in Ohio, four demonstrators were killed by shots fired by the Ohio National Guard.

Of all the lessons learned from Vietnam, one rings louder than all the rest &mdash it is impossible to win a long, protracted war without popular support.

When the war in Vietnam began, many Americans believed that defending South Vietnam from communist aggression was in the national interest. Communism was threatening free governments across the globe. Any sign of non-intervention from the United States might encourage revolutions elsewhere.

As the war dragged on, more and more Americans grew weary of mounting casualties and escalating costs. The small antiwar movement grew into an unstoppable force, pressuring American leaders to reconsider its commitment.

Peace movement leaders opposed the war on moral and economic grounds. The North Vietnamese, they argued, were fighting a patriotic war to rid themselves of foreign aggressors. Innocent Vietnamese peasants were being killed in the crossfire. American planes wrought environmental damage by dropping their defoliating chemicals.

Ho Chi Minh was the most popular leader in all of Vietnam, and the United States was supporting an undemocratic, corrupt military regime. Young American soldiers were suffering and dying. Their economic arguments were less complex, but as critical of the war effort. Military spending simply took money away from Great Society social programs such as welfare, housing, and urban renewal.

The Draft

The draft was another major source of resentment among college students. The age of the average American soldier serving in Vietnam was 19, seven years younger than its World War II counterpart. Students observed that young Americans were legally old enough to fight and die, but were not permitted to vote or drink alcohol. Such criticism led to the 26th Amendment , which granted suffrage to 18-year-olds.

Slogans like "How Many More?," "I'm a Viet Nam Dropout" and "Ship the GI's Home Now!" graced the buttons, flags and banners of the anti-war movement.

Because draft deferments were granted to college students, the less affluent and less educated made up a disproportionate percentage of combat troops. Once drafted, Americans with higher levels of education were often given military office jobs. About 80 percent of American ground troops in Vietnam came from the lower classes. Latino and African American males were assigned to combat more regularly than drafted white Americans.

Antiwar demonstrations were few at first, with active participants numbering in the low thousands when Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution . Events in Southeast Asia and at home caused those numbers to grow as the years passed. As the Johnson Administration escalated the commitment, the peace movement grew. Television changed many minds. Millions of Americans watched body bags leave the Asian rice paddies every night in their living rooms.

Give Peace a Chance

The late 1960s became increasingly radical as the activists felt their demands were ignored. Peaceful demonstrations turned violent. When the police arrived to arrest protesters, the crowds often retaliated. Students occupied buildings across college campuses forcing many schools to cancel classes. Roads were blocked and ROTC buildings were burned. Doves clashed with police and the National Guard in August 1968, when antiwar demonstrators flocked to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago to prevent the nomination of a prowar candidate.

Massive gatherings of anti-war demonstrators helped bring attention to the public resentment of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. The confrontation seen above took place at the Pentagon in 1967.

Despite the growing antiwar movement, a silent majority of Americans still supported the Vietnam effort. Many admitted that involvement was a mistake, but military defeat was unthinkable.

When Richard Nixon was inaugurated in January 1969, the nation was bitterly divided over what course of action to follow next.

Yeah, come on all of you, big strong men /
Uncle Sam needs your help again /
He's got himself in a terrible jam /
Way down yonder in Vietnam /
So put down your books and pick up a gun, /
We're gonna have a whole lotta fun.

Mardi Gras History

The origins of Mardi Gras can be traced to medieval Europe, passing through Rome and Venice in the 17th and 18th centuries to the French House of the Bourbons. From here, the traditional revelry of "Boeuf Gras," or fatted calf, followed France to her colonies.

On March 2, 1699, French-Canadian explorer Jean Baptiste Le Moyne Sieur de Bienville arrived at a plot of ground 60 miles directly south of New Orleans, and named it "Pointe du Mardi Gras" when his men realized it was the eve of the festive holiday. Bienville also established "Fort Louis de la Louisiane" (which is now Mobile) in 1702. In 1703, the tiny settlement of Fort Louis de la Mobile celebrated America's very first Mardi Gras.

In 1704, Mobile established a secret society (Masque de la Mobile), similar to those that form our current Mardi Gras krewes. It lasted until 1709. In 1710, the "Boeuf Gras Society" was formed and paraded from 1711 through 1861. The procession was held with a huge bull's head pushed along on wheels by 16 men. Later, Rex would parade with an actual bull, draped in white and signaling the coming Lenten meat fast. This occurred on Fat Tuesday.

New Orleans was established in 1718 by Bienville. By the 1730s, Mardi Gras was celebrated openly in New Orleans, but not with the parades we know today. In the early 1740s, Louisiana's governor, the Marquis de Vaudreuil, established elegant society balls, which became the model for the New Orleans Mardi Gras balls of today.

The earliest reference to Mardi Gras "Carnival" appears in a 1781 report to the Spanish colonial governing body. That year, the Perseverance Benevolent & Mutual Aid Association was the first of hundreds of clubs and carnival organizations formed in New Orleans.

By the late 1830s, New Orleans held street processions of maskers with carriages and horseback riders to celebrate Mardi Gras. Dazzling gaslight torches, or "flambeaux," lit the way for the krewe's members and lent each event an exciting air of romance and festivity. In 1856, six young Mobile natives formed the Mistick Krewe of Comus, invoking John Milton's hero Comus to represent their organization. Comus brought magic and mystery to New Orleans with dazzling floats (known as tableaux cars) and masked balls. Krewe members remained anonymous.

In 1870, Mardi Gras' second Krewe, the Twelfth Night Revelers, was formed. This is also the first recorded account of Mardi Gras "throws."

Newspapers began to announce Mardi Gras events in advance, and they even printed "Carnival Edition" lithographs of parades' fantastic float designs (after they rolled, of course - themes and floats were always carefully guarded before the procession). At first, these reproductions were small, and details could not be clearly seen. But beginning in 1886 with Proteus' parade "Visions of Other Worlds," these chromolithographs could be produced in full, saturated color, doing justice to the float and costume designs of Carlotta Bonnecase, Charles Briton and B.A. Wikstrom. Each of these designers' work was brought to life by talented Parisian paper-mache' artist Georges Soulie', who for 40 years was responsible for creating all of Carnival's floats and processional outfits.

1872 was the year that a group of businessmen invented a King of Carnival, Rex, to preside over the first daytime parade. To honor the visiting Russian Grand Duke Alexis Romanoff, the businessmen introduced Romanoff's family colors of purple, green and gold as Carnival's official colors. Purple stands for justice gold for power and green for faith. This was also the Mardi Gras season that Carnival's improbable anthem, "If Ever I Cease to Love," was cemented, due in part to the Duke's fondness for the tune.

The following year, floats began to be constructed entirely in New Orleans instead of France, culminating with Comus' magnificent "The Missing Links to Darwin's Origin of Species," in which exotic paper-mache' animal costumes served as the basis for Comus to mock both Darwin's theory and local officials, including Governor Henry Warmoth. In 1875, Governor Warmoth signed the "Mardi Gras Act," making Fat Tuesday a legal holiday in Louisiana, which it still is.

Like Comus and the Twelfth Night Revelers, most Mardi Gras krewes today developed from private social clubs with restrictive membership policies. Since all of these parade organizations are completely funded by their members, New Orleanians call it the "Greatest Free Show on Earth!"

Sessional Dates

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Last day to add or remove a CR/NCR option in Y section code courses.

Last day to drop S section code courses from academic record and GPA. After this deadline a mark is recorded for each course, whether course work is completed or not (a 0/zero is assigned for incomplete work), and calculated into the GPA. Note that some courses cannot be cancelled using ACORN and students must contact their College or Department to do so refer to the Registration Instructions.

Last day to add or remove a CR/NCR option in S section code courses.

Classes end in S and Y section code courses deadline to request Late Withdrawal (LWD) from S and Y section code courses at College Registrar's Office

Last day to request November 2016 graduation

2016 Fall Term

Classes begin in F and Y section code courses

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Last day to drop F section code courses from academic record and GPA. After this deadline a mark is recorded for each course, whether course work is completed or not (a 0/zero is assigned for incomplete work), and calculated into the GPA. Note that some courses cannot be cancelled using ACORN and students must contact their College or Department to do so refer to the Registration Instructions.

Last day to add or remove a CR/NCR option in F section code courses.

Classes end in F section code courses and in Y section code courses (for Fall session)

Last day to request June 2017 graduation

Makeup Monday classes (at instructor's discretion)

Deadline to request Late Withdrawal (LWD) from F section code courses at College Registrar's Office

2017 Winter Term

Last day to drop Y section code courses from academic record and GPA. After this deadline a mark is recorded for each course, whether course work is completed or not (a 0/zero is assigned for incomplete work), and calculated into the GPA. Note that some courses cannot be cancelled using ACORN and students must contact their College or Department to do so refer to the Registration Instructions.

Last day to add or remove a CR/NCR option in Y section code courses.

Last day to drop S section code courses from academic record and GPA. After this deadline a mark is recorded for each course, whether course work is completed or not (a 0/zero is assigned for incomplete work), and calculated into the GPA. Note that some courses cannot be cancelled using ACORN and students must contact their College or Department to do so refer to the Registration Instructions.

Last day to add or remove a CR/NCR option in S section code courses.

Last day to file a petition regarding a final examination for 2016-2017 fall/winter session S and Y section code courses

Last day to file a petition regarding term work for 2016-2017 fall/winter session S and Y section code courses

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