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(AG-15: dp. 13,910; 1. 459'2", b. 63'; dr. 24', s. 16 k., cpl. 633
a. 2 5", 6 40mm., 6 20mm.; cl. Adirondaek)
The third Adirondack was laid down on 18 November 1944 at Wilmington, N.C. under a Maritime Commission contract by the North Carolina Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on 13 January 1945; sponsored by Mrs. E. L. White; transferred to the Navy on 4 February 1945; towed to the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for conversion; and commissioned on 2 September 1945—the day Japan surrendered on board battleship Missouri 1BB 63) in Tokyo Bay—Capt. R. O. Myers in command.
The ship was designed as an amphibious force flagship, a floating command post with advanced communications equipment and extensive combat information spaces to be used by the amphibious forces commander and landing force commander during large-scale operations. After shakedown training in the Chesapeake Bay from 25 Seutember to 12 October 1945, Adirondack assumed the duties of flagship for Commander, Operational Development Force (CTF 69), and operated out of Norfolk until August 1949, when she was scheduled to participate in an Antarctic expedition. However, that project was cancelled, and Adirondack reported to the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard for inactivation. On 1 February 1950, she was placed in reserve, in service, as flagship of the Philadelphia Group, Atlantic Reserve Fleet.
Over a year later, the command ship returned to the active fleet. Following a recommissioning ceremony in Philadelphia on 4 April 1951, Adirondack reported to the Atlantic Fleet Trainmg Command in Norfolk for inspection and training. She returned to Philadelphia on 3 June to complete final preparations for a tour in the Mediterranean as fla`rship for the Commander in Chief, Allied Forces in southern Europe (CINCSOUTH) and for the Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleets (CINCNELM).
Adirondack steamed to the Mediterranean and, on 18 August moored in Naples, which was to be her home port for almost two years. In addition to her duties as Flagship for CINCSOUTH and CINCNELM, she coordinated activities of units of the 6th Fleet as they arrived and departed and assumed the administrative duties of senior officer present afloat. After 14 June 1952 Adirondack also served as the flagship for Commander, Subordinate Command, Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Fleets, and then for Commander, Fleet Air, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. On 29 May 1953, she departed Naples and returned to the Norfolk Naval Shipyard for overhaul and reassignment.
Following a shakedown and training cruise to Guantanamo Bay, Adirondaek headed back to Norfolk and, on 28 October became flagship for Commander, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet. She sailed from Norfolk on 12 February 1954 to conduct a tour of inspection of amphibious bases in the Caribbean area. In a transfer of flags at San Juan, Puerto Rico, on 23 March, Commander Amphibious Group Four (COMPHIBGRU FOUR) shifted his flag to Adirondack. One week later, the amphibious command ship participated in Operation "Sentry Box" held off Vieques, Puerto Rico. The exercise was the first.joint Army
Navy exercise in the Atlantic since the fall of 1952 and employed more than 3,000 native Puerto Rican boons of the Army. This rigorous operation touched off a year of Atiantic Fleet exercises m which Adirondack played a major role.
In April, COMPHIBGRU FOUR—still embarked in Adirondack—was designated Commander of the umpire group for LANTAGLEX-54, a full-scale amphibious assault on Onslow Beach, N. C. The umpire group exercised the participating units evaluated training, and assessed "damage" inflicted by the "hostile" units. Another exercise, "Packard V," was held in May and consisted of a gunfire demonstration in the Chesapeake Bay and a full-scale D day assault on Onslow Beach, directed from Adirondack by COMPHIBGRU FOUR.
On 20 July, the ship departed Norfolk for Operation "Keystone," a combined land, sea, and air maneuver in the Mediterranean involving forces of the countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Planning conferences were held in Naples and the amphibious task force sortied on 30 August with observers from Great Britain, France, Italy, Greece, and Turkey embarked in Adirondack. On 4 September, the task force landed more than 1,500 marines on the beaches at Dikili, Turkey. The flagship arrived back in Norfolk on 27 September and immediately began preparations for the next series of drills.
On 22 October, she departed Norfolk to rendezvous with other ships participating in Operation "NORAMEX" off the coast of Labrador. A battalion of marines landed on the beaches of Hamflton Inlet on 1 November to test amphibious cold weather doctrine and equipment. After a successful drill, Adirondack sailed on 3 November for Bogue Inlet, N.C., for a full-scale assault climaxing the amphibious phases of the Atlantic Fleet training cycle for 1954. She returned to Norfolk on 20 November and leave and upkeep.
During 1955, Adirondack served as umpire for "ANGEX II," a naval gunfire exercise held in February off Vieques and Culebra, Puerto Rico. In early March, she observed the "TRAEX II-55" landing off Vieques as part of the umpire group for the atomic defense exercise phase. She remained in Dort in Norfolk from 9 March to 11 April and headed south for "T-RAEX III 55" off Vieques. She returned to Norfolk for inactivation, was placed out of commission, in reserve, on 9 November 1955, and transferred to the Maritime Administration for berthing with the James River unit of the National Defense Reserve Fleet. Adirondack was stricken from the Navy list on 1 June 1961 and sold on 7 November 1972 to Union Minerals and Alloys Corp. of New York City for scrap.
Adirondack- AG-15 - History
WEST VIRGINIA ADJUTANT GENERALS' PAPERS
15th West Virginia Infantry
(Field and Staff, Companies A - K, Recruiting Officers, Unassigned)
Folder 1 - F&S - Maxwell McCaslin - Letters - (13 items)
Folder 2 - F&S - Milton Wells - Letters - (13 items)
Folder 3 - F&S - John W. Holliday - Letters - (18 items)
Folder 4 - F&S - Thomas Morris - Letters - (2 items)
Folder 5 - F&S - Walter S. Welsh - Letters - (3 items)
Folder 6 - F&S - Letters - (15 items)
Folder 7 - F&S - Muster In Rolls - (1 item)
Folder 8 - Oaths - (32 items)
Folder 9 - Co. A - Letters - (3 items)
Folder 10 - Co. A - Muster In Rolls - (1 item)
Folder 11 - Co. A - Muster Out Rolls - (6 items)
Folder 12 - Co. B - Letters - (8 items)
Folder 13 - Co. B - Muster In Rolls - (9 items)
Folder 13A - Co. C - Letters - (3 items)
Folder 14 - Co. C - Muster In Rolls - (1 item)
Folder 15 - Co. C - Muster Out Rolls - (8 items)
Folder 16 - Co. C - Muster & Descriptive Rolls - (3 items)
Folder 16A - Co. D - Letters - (1 item)
Folder 17 - Co. E - Letters - (2 items)
Folder 18 - Co. E - Muster In Rolls - (1 item)
Folder 19 - Co. E - Muster Out rolls - (11 items)
Folder 20 - Co. E - Muster & Descriptive Rolls - (3 items)
Folder 21 - Co. F - Letters - (2 items)
Folder 22 - Co. F - Muster Out Rolls - (8 items)
Folder 23 - Co. F - Muster & Descriptive Rolls - (2 items)
Folder 24 - Co. G - Letters - (2 items)
Folder 25 - Co. G - Muster In Rolls - (3 items)
Folder 26 - Co. G - Muster Out Rolls - (11 items)
Folder 27 - Co. G - Muster & Descriptive Rolls - (2 items)
Folder 28 - Co. G - Returns - (1 item)
Folder 29 - Co. H - Letters - (8 items)
Folder 30 - Co. H - Muster In Rolls - (2 items)
Folder 31 - Co. H - Muster Out Rolls - (7 items)
Folder 32 - Co. I - Letters - (9 items)
Folder 33 - Co. I - Muster In Rolls - (2 items)
Folder 34 - Co. I - Muster Out Rolls - (8 items)
Folder 35 - Co. I - Muster & Descriptive Rolls - (3 items)
Folder 36 - Co. K - Letters - (5 items)
Folder 37 - Co. K - Muster Out Rolls - (10 items)
Folder 38 - Co. K - Muster & Descriptive rolls - (12 items)
Folder 39 - Co. K - Returns - (1 item)
Folder 40 - Recruiting Officers - Letters - (10 items)
Folder 41 - Miscellaneous Companies - Muster In Rolls - (4 items)
Folder 42 - Miscellaneous Companies - Muster Out Rolls - (3 items)
Folder 43 - Miscellaneous Companies - Muster & Descriptive Rolls - (15 items)
Folder 44 - Desertion Dropped - (3 items)
Restrictions: The Archives does not currently have the necessary equipment to make proper photostatic copies of oversized items such as muster rolls and order, descriptive, and clothing books. Staff may determine whether an item is too large and/or too fragile to copy.
Adirondack- AG-15 - History
Long Lake and Raquette Lake are communities rich with history and a fascinating past. History is ever evolving, whether its knowing where a special camp was from the 1960’s to the discovery of the Buttercup on the bottom of Long Lake.
There are rich traditions in these woods. Here is a smattering.
The Town of Long Lake was first settled in the 1830s by Joel Plumley, David Keller and E. H. St. John. Plumleys and Kellers still reside in Long Lake. The first houses were log cabins until mills were established. The first mill, owned by St. John, was near the South Pond outlet in Deerland, another was the Robinson mill on the stream at the beginning of Endion Road, and another was near Fishing Brook on the way to Newcomb.
Raquette Lake is part of the Town of Long Lake. Its first settlers, William Wood and Matthew Beach arrived in 1840. Circa 1855, Wood gave his property to Amos Hough of Long Lake in exchange for his care until death. From a History of Hamilton County (HHC) “A primitive hotel opened in 1857, the Raquette Lake House. It closed in 1873 and part of the structure was moved to Forked Lake becoming the Forked Lake House. “ Alvah Dunning, woodsman, arrived in Raquette Lake in 1868. He settled on Indian Point then took possession of camps on Osprey Island in Raquette Lake. The next dignitary to arrive was Dr. Thomas C. Durant, the railroad magnate and father of William West Durant who was responsible for the design of many of the Great Camps in the Adirondacks.
According to HHC, “More than any other community in Hamilton County, it was primarily the summer people who brought the principality of Raquette Lake into being. Its continuing economy was built almost entirely on resort life.” J. Pierpont Morgan acquired Camp Uncas in 1896 from William West Durant. The Vanderbilt family built Great Camp Sagamore also a Durant design. Both of these camps are now National Historic Landmarks.
LIVING AND LAYING THE LAND.
Travel between the outside world and Long Lake was difficult. “The nearest physician, store or even gristmill was forty to fifty miles through the forest on a rough footpath.(HHC)” Local travel via lake and stream was conducted by dugout canoes or heavy skiffs and later by lighter guideboats in the warmer months, and in winter the frozen lake allowed visits to friends on the opposite shore. Guideboats were invented in Long Lake. Their design evolved over a period of years, each builder contributing his improvement. The Rev.John Todd, author of an 1845 book about Long Lake, mentions the little boats coming to church services in 1842.
Long Lake was formally incorporated in 1837, and the first town meeting was held at the home of E. H. St. John. James Sargent was named Supervisor. Harman Keller was the Town Clerk. David Keller was named Assessor, Commissioner of Schools, Overseer of Highways in District #1 and Justice of the Peace. Joel Plumley was named Assessor, Commissioner of Highways, Inspector of Schools and Justice of the Peace. The town was sparsely populated and those present performed numerous offices.
There was no post office or hotel or grocery store. The first school “commenced November 8, 1841 and was kept for one month and twenty days.” By the late 1840s goods and produce were brought in from Newcomb by wagon and this was the main route out to civilization.
In 1846, Amos Dean published a pamphlet promoting the Town of Long Lake to potential settlers. “It will be found an excellent country for grazing, raising stock, and producing butter and cheese. . . The strength of the soil is sufficiently tested by the heavy growth of timber.” His effusive praise proved to be somewhat exaggerated.
Livonia Stanton arrived in Long Lake in 1849 with her family. Her father came to Long Lake because “land was cheap, wood was plenty, all it cost was to cut it, fish, venison and fur were plenty.” . . .”That was quite an inducement for a poor man, when he has to pay rent and buy his wood. ” She continues, “Long Lake was a hard place to live in and yet it had many comforts. We had six months of winter, that was a dreary time, the summer came, it was so pleasant we forgot all about the long winter, until it was here again.”
By 1850, the population had reached 157 residents. All were farmers except for a joiner, a surveyor, a hermit and a hunter who gave his occupation as “nothing.” Four stores and a hotel sprang up in 1860. The first post office opened in 1863. Visitors to Long Lake in these early days were C. W. Weber, a sporting naturalist who passed through in 1849 and William Waddell who came in 1858 and reported a “nice schoolhouse, comfortable framed houses and valuable farms.” By 1860 the Champlain-Carthage Road opened and more and more sportsmen came. Lumbering became more prevalent as farming waned.
The Civil War was felt in this isolated part of New York State. Some of the eligible Long Lake men joined the 93rd Regiment including Benjamin Emerson, founder of Long View Lodge, and husband of Livonia Stanton, and Josiah Houghton and David Henry Rice. Ransom Palmer, thought to have killed the last native Adirondack moose in 1861, lost his arm in the Battle of the Wilderness.
In 1869, Rev. William H. H. Murray wrote a book called Adventures in the Wilderness or Camp-Life in the Adirondacks. It was a very popular book and went through eight printings its first year of publication. Many of the tales in Murray’s book are set in and around Long Lake and Raquette Lake. The tourist edition of the book printed maps of the area and train schedules. Consequently there was a rush to the Adirondacks by tourists often referred to in the popular press, as Murray’s Fools.
As a result of Murray’s book, hotels large and small opened for business, Great Camps were built by notables J. P. Morgan, the Vanderbilt family, the Whitneys, Henry S. Harper and politicians such as Judge Green of NYC and Senator Orville Platt from Connecticut. The tourist economy of the Adirondacks, still in existence today, was launched..
The artist, Arthur F. Tait arrived in 1870 and built a camp on South Pond. Later he moved his family to the west shore on property that became the Freund camp. One of his children was born in Long Lake, Arthur James Blossom Tait in 1875 and Francis Osborn Tait was born in New York City in 1880. As a result of the massive influx of tourists from the publication of the Murray Book, it was a strong catalyst for A.F. Tait making his camps deeper and deeper into the woods to seek the isolation and find the solitude he needed to create his beautiful works.
Long Lake harbored quite a few hotels and in 1882, the largest, the Hotel Sagamore started to take shape on a bluff on the eastern shore of the lake, south of the present town center. It finally opened in July 1885 but burned down in 1889. The second hotel opened in 1891, boasted 200 rooms. Much of the money to rebuild came from the sale of Town of Long Lake bonds, an “unofficial and slightly questionable” acknowledgment of the role tourism played in the economic health of the town. The hotel closed in the 1950s and was torn down in the 1960s.
In 1892, the Adirondack Park (including the Town of Long Lake) was created amid concerns for the water and timber resources of the region. In 1894, the state-owned lands were protected by Article VII, Section 7, of the NYS Constitution (now Article XIV). “The lands of the state, now owned or hereafter acquired, constituting the forest preserve as now fixed by law, shall be forever kept as wild forest lands. They shall not be leased, sold or exchanged, or be taken by any corporation, public or private, nor shall the timber thereon be sold, removed or destroyed.”
Before the present bridge was erected, there was a floating bridge (1871) which offered precarious passage from one side of the lake to the other, next came two bridges including an iron bridge completed in 1901, then in 1933, a dam and causeway were built creating Jennings Park Pond. The project eliminated the necessity of having two bridges. Prior to this, ferries transported passengers back and forth. There was one at Endion another transported fares from the end of Tarbell Hill Road over to the west shore. Steamboats also provided transportation between Deerland, the town proper and the hotels at the north end of the lake.
The first paved highway in town was started in 1910. It ran from Shaw Pond to Deerland. Later the road was extended from the present day Hoss’s to the bridge. Webb’s Mohawk and Malone Railway reached Long Lake West (now Sabattis) in 1892. The telephone arrived in 1913, electricity came to private homes in 1926. A Fire Company was authorized in 1927, and the municipal water system was installed in 1934. Seaplane service came in 1946 and is still operating as “Helms Aero Service.”
A significant event was the creation of the Adirondack Park Agency in 1971 which oversees land use in the Adirondacks. This was and continues to be controversial. Opponents accuse the agency of having a negative effect on economic development and forcing residents out of the Park. Proponents argue that without the Agency, development would be rampant and the character of the Adirondack Park would be destroyed.
Today, Long Lake and Raquette Lake still depend on tourism. The Parks Recreation and Tourism Department of the Town of Long Lake holds year-round events in both towns from Fourth of July fireworks in the summer to snowmobile races in the winter. Fall brings the leaf peepers, and Labor Day supper and music in the Mt. Sabattis Pavilion. Spring brings the fishermen, fishing derbies and later in June, the black flies. Screened porches, netting and bug dope are advised in June or reservations for indoor imbibing at the various restaurants and hotels in the two towns. For a complete schedule of events and a list of businesses check this website.
During the theme park heyday of the 1950s and 60s, the Adirondacks were home to dozens of parks. Only one remains, Santa’s Workshop in Wilmington, NY, founded in 1949 by entrepreneur Julian Reiss. North Pole, NY is a documentary following the park’s current struggles to survive changing cultural, technological and economic realities, while placing it in the larger context of the history and decline of American roadside attractions. Edited and Directed by Ali Cotterill, 2017, 69 mins.
JULY 29, 7PM
6 Million Acres Forever Wild
The Adirondack Park was created in 1892 by the State of New York amid concerns for the water and timber resources of the region. Larger than several states in New England, bigger even than Yosemite, Yellowstone, Glacier, Grand Canyon and the Great Smokies National Parks combined - the Adirondack Park contains the largest protected wilderness area east of the Mississippi.
The boundary of the park encompasses more than six million acres, nearly half of which belongs to all the people of New York state and is constitutionally protected as a "forever wild" forest preserve. The remaining half of the park is private land including settlements, farms, timberlands, businesses, homes and camps.
The Adirondack Park boasts 3,000 lakes and ponds, and 30,000 miles of rivers and streams, therefore Adirondack waterways are vast, wild and primal -perfect for New York canoeing and kayaking. The 46 tallest mountains within the park are called the Adirondack High Peaks. Mount Marcy is the highest point in the entire state of New York, towering 5,343 feet above the High Peaks Wilderness Area. Whether you're a "46er" or simply looking to take a nature walk in the lower elevations - the Adirondack Park has more than 2,000 miles of complex and beautiful New York hiking trails that cater to every skill level. Year-round recreation at alpine and cross-country ski centers is also a popular draw throughout the region.
Handicap accessible trails are offered in many regions so that everyone can enjoy the wilderness. For a hands-on glimpse into the history of the Adirondacks - from the logging industry to the distinctive architecture of the Adirondack Great Camps - The Adirondack Experience - The Museum at Blue Mountain Lake is the best place to go. The Wild Center Natural History Museum in Tupper Lake focuses on the environment and geology of the park. Celebrated for their experiential exhibits, these two museums are a must for first time visitors.
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But it’s the books that are the stars of this show. They pack every spot available, and represent every genre imaginable: the predictable, along with Hunting & Fishing, International Cuisine, Irish, Military History, Olympics, Quilting, Railroads, Yoga, and on and on.
The Adirondack/North Country section interests me the most. When I ask Strong how many books he has here, he strokes his long salt-and-pepper beard below the intermission of his covid mask and says, “Oh, about a thousand.” Bathed in the warmth of his glowing woodstove (“It’s enough to keep this one going,” he observes by way of explaining that the other half dozen stoves scattered throughout the store are propane-fueled) are almost every regional book of any repute. In a Victorian cabinet with glass doors, one of several that house his most valuable collections, I see first editions of New York (State) Forest Commission Reports from the 1890s and an original “Topographical Survey of the Adirondack Wilderness, 1873-74,” by Verplanck Colvin, priced at $175. Around the corner are seven trays of penny postcards featuring turn-of-the-20th-century scenes of towns from Camden to Chazy. It’s tempting to grab a time-worn book, settle into one of the eclectic collection of chairs tucked in crannies (one is made of snowshoes) and read for a while.
William Seward Webb constructed this line, which he called the Mohawk and Malone, with service beginning in 1892. The original line ran from Herkimer to Malone, a distance of 191 miles. In 1893, the New York Central Railroad leased this line from Webb's Mohawk and Malone. The New York Central changed the southern terminus to Utica and added a spur from Lake Clear Junction. to Saranac Lake with service to Lake Placid via the existing Delaware and Hudson tracks. The New York Central operated the line as their Adirondack Division with through passenger and freight service from Utica to Malone, Montreal, Saranac Lake, and Lake Placid. In 1913, the New York Central bought the line and commenced a major upgrade to both accommodate heavier engines and withstand the harsh climate. The line operated profitably for another 10-15 years before paved roads began to siphon off both freight and passenger traffic.
In 1952, the New York Central first petitioned to abandon the day train to Lake Placid. The petition was denied. In 1957, the railroad successfully petitioned to end passenger service to Malone, and the tracks from Lake Clear Junction to Malone were removed soon thereafter. In 1958, the railroad petitioned to abandon all passenger service on the line and threatened to abandon all service if they were not allowed to abandon passenger service. When this petition was also denied, the railroad substituted rail diesel cars (a single powered rail car "bus on rails") for passenger service.
In 1963, the New York Central again petitioned the government for full abandonment, but ultimately agreed to continue freight service after being relieved of passenger service. In 1968, the New York Central and the Pennsylvania Railroad merged to form the Penn Central Railroad, with the Penn Central continuing limited freight service until 1972 when its petition for discontinuance was finally accepted.
In 1974, the State of New York acquired the Remsen to Lake Placid line from Penn Central ". in order to preserve the right-of-way until the best use could be determined." (Corridor Management Plan, page 7.) In 1977, the State signed a contract with the Adirondack Railway Corporation to rehabilitate and operate the line, with rehabilitation costs set at $1.75 million. ARC received a $1.645 million grant from the Federal Economic Development Administration and matching State funds of $105,000.
When passenger service to Lake Placid for the 1980 Winter Olympics was added to the plan, the State provided an additional $805,000 plus another $100,000 to prevent a shut down for safety reasons prior to the Olympics. Limited service that was plagued by derailments continued through the fall of 1980. The State then reviewed the operations and cancelled the lease in February, 1981. The Adirondack Railway Corporation filed for bankruptcy in April, 1981.
When the state Department of Transportation (DOT) subsequently solicited bids for another operator, they did not receive any acceptable bids. It then took until 1991 for DOT to regain full control of the line from the prior owners.
In 1990, the Adirondack North Country Association (ANCA) commissioned Northwest Engineering to conduct a feasibility study for rail rehabilitation and operations. The cost of rehabilitation from Remsen to Lake Placid was set at $17 million.
In 1991, DOT and the state Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) jointly began the process of preparing a management plan for the Adirondack Rail Corridor from Remsen to Lake Placid. The first step was the formation of a Citizens Advisory Committee, which met seven times between January and September, 1992. All but one of the 25 members favored the restoration of at least some rail service. In September, 1994, the DOT/DEC planning team released a "Summary Draft Plan" that kept the rails in place for five years while a suitable operator was sought.
The plan stated: "State funding would not be made available for rail service development." In December, 1995, a "Final Draft" plan was released for public comment with the modified statement: "Rail development will largely depend on privately secured funding sources because, although there are potential public sources, government funding availability cannot be guaranteed."
In 1992, simultaneous with this planning process, the DOT permitted the Adirondack Railway Preservation Society (ARPS) to improve the track for four miles south of Thendara and operate the Adirondack Centennial Railroad in recognition of the 100th anniversary of the Adirondack Park. This short, eight-mile round trip excursion (later extended to nine miles) attracted as many as 76,800 riders per year during its three seasons from1992 to 1994.
In 1996, ARPS received $2 million in federal and state grants to upgrade the line from Utica to Thendara and thereby add a longer excursion service from Utica. In 2000, the state awarded a total of $7.1 million in grants to upgrade the track between Lake Placid and Saranac Lake with additional improvements to allow equipment to move the 80 miles from Thendara to Saranac Lake. In 2006, DOT spent $4.1 million to rebuild the railroad overpass at Thendara.
In a 2007 letter to Scott Thompson of Beaver River, Mark Silo, P.E. and DOT Region 2 Director, stated that to date the State had invested $32 million in the rail corridor. The letter states, "New York State assumed ownership of the Corridor in 1974 and since then, through several State administrations, has invested $32 million in its preservation." This wording implies, but does not make clear, that the $32 million figure does not include the apparent $15 million purchase price of the Corridor in 1974.
Since 2000, the Adirondack Scenic Railroad has operated excursion service in the following locations on the Adirondack Rail Corridor:
Lake Placid and Saranac Lake (9 miles)Thendara and either Carter Station or Moose River (both 5 miles)Utica and Thendara (52 miles)Most recently once a week from Utica to Big Moose (63 miles).
In mid-2010 an advocacy group for creating the Adirondack Rail Trail was formed, stimulated by inaction on the State's part after (then) eight years had elapsed since the end of the original 5-year "marketing experiment" for rail restoration. During this period, and continuing to present time, the 81 miles of track between Old Forge and Saranac Lake had not been used for any train services, either passenger or freight. The remaining 9 miles, from Saranac Lake to Lake Placid were used seasonally for an excursion rail service that at its peak served 14,000 customers.
Adirondack Recreational Trail Advocates,or ARTA, a 501c3 charity, began to collect petitions from ordinary citizens and local businesses and to ask the municipalities along the way to take a stand on either demanding that the State review the management plan for the corridor or demand that the tracks be removed and a recreation trail be constructed immediately, at least on the unused 81-mile section. During the ten years from ARTA's creation to present time over 13,000 citizens have signed petitions for a trail as have over 400 businesses on the corridor in which the trail will be constructed. 12 municipalities on the corridor have passed resolutions either asking the State to immediately reopen the Corridor Management Plan or move to the construction of the trail without further process. Editorials in papers in Albany, Utica, Lake Placid, Saranac Lake, Plattsburgh and elsewhere have called for State action. For more on the advocacy process, the supporting studies and documents, and links to the municipal resolutions and other materials please see the ARTA website (www.TheARTA.org).
In mid-2013, the State's Department of Transportation began hearings that were at first thought to be the long-delayed legal proceedings to reopen the Corridor Management Plan, but which subsequently were disclosed to be hearings to determine if the legally-required review would take place. A decision was promised by year-end 2013, but none was forthcoming. ARTA filed a demand with DOT that the management plan be reopened immediately, 12 years after it was statutorily mandated to be reviewed. On July 9th, 2014, that demand was finally met, and on Febrary 12, 2016 the APA ruled that the plan was in accord with the State Land Master Plan. On May 17, 2016 the state published its official approval of the plan.
On July 9th, 2014, the State announced that the Management Plan for the corridor would be reopened and recommended that the 34 miles between Lake Placid and Tupper Lake be converted into a multi-use recreation trail with restored train service south of Tupper Lake and a multi-use trail from Tupper Lake to Lake Placid [See nte 1 below]. In 2015 the DEC and DOT held four more hearings and reaffirmed their intention to build a rail-trail on the old corridor between Lake Placid and Tupper Lake and to permit rail extension north from Big Moose to Tupper Lake. In late 2015 DEC and DOT jointly reaffirmed the 2014 plan and it went to the Adirondack Park Agency for a final vote to confirm that the plan was in accord with the State Land Master Plan.
On February 12th, 2016 the APA voted almost unanimously to support the proposed rail-trail between Lake Placid and Tupper Lake and the possible extension of rail service north from Big Moose to Tupper Lake.
The next step, was the May 17, 2016 formal announcement of the Governor's approval of the plan. Between the Governor's announcement and the fall of 2016 a group of "Stakeholders" representing private and public interests along the corridor between Lake Placid and Tupper Lake met with officials from the State under the leadership of the NY Department of Environmental Conservation to plan for the amenities, access points, signage, road crossing, and all related considerations leading up to proposal requests for trail construction.
On September 27th, 2017 acting on a challenge to the Unit Management Plan by the Adirondack Railway Preservation Society, Judge Robert Main threw out the UMP for three reasons:(i) the historical preservation remediation was approved by the Parks Department AFTER the UMP was approved, (ii) three properties along the corridor were not under State control at the time the UMP was approved, and (iii) the State Land Master Plan did not provide a sub-definition or other provision for a rail-trail within the defined term 'Travel Corridor'. The first two were procedural and easily remedied but the third interpretation of the Master Plan, which the State has challenged, would require a revision to that master plan and a re-start on the unit management process.
On March 8, 2018 the Adirondack Park Agency proposed changes to the State Land Master Plan that would accommodate rail trails. Hearings were held in April 2018 and a public comment period was provided until May 7, 2018. On December 13, 2018 the APA voted to change the Travel Corridors classification definition to permit recreational activity sanctioned under an approved Unit Management Plan (UMP). This change received Governor Cuomo's signature allowing DEC and DOT to restate the UMP process for the Remsen-Lake Placid travel corridor.
Assuming the new UMP is approved by the APA in earlyh 2020 construction of the 34-mile rail-trail between Lake Placid and Tupper Lake could take place in late 2020 and 2021.
Note 1: The Adirondack Scenic Railroad's popular Polar Express Christmas trains do not use any portion of the Adirondack Rail Corridor.
- Italian immigrants first introduced broccoli to the United States in the 1800s. However, it did not become widely know until the 1920s.
- The word broccoli comes from an Italian word broccolo which means “the flowering top of a cabbage”.
- In the United States, California produces 90% of the crop.
- The United States ranks 3 rd in the world for production of broccoli. China is ranked 1 st and India ranks 2 nd .
- The vegetable is a member of the Brassicaceae family which also includes cabbage, kale, and cauliflower.
- There are two forms of broccoli: sprouting and heading. In the United States, heading broccoli is the most common.
- The crop is a cool-season vegetable which means it grows best during spring or fall.
- The vegetable is typically harvested from mid-October through December.
- The crop is planted primarily by direct seeding.
- It can take anywhere from 70 to 140 days to mature after planting.
- The crop is typically 2 feet wide and 2 feet tall.
- There is no machine to harvest the vegetable so it must be hand harvested. A knife is commonly used to cut the stem when harvesting.
- The optimal storage life for the vegetable is 21-28 days.
- In the United States, the average annual per capita consumption is 5.8 pounds.
- Over the last 25 years, the crops consumption has increased over 940%.
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Written by: Amber DiCarlo, Marketing Intern
Karyn Moyer is the Client Success & Marketing Manager at AgHires. Karyn enjoys learning and discovering new ways to help job seekers and clients to reach their goals. AgHires helps agricultural and food production companies find the employees they need to run a successful business.
From Manhattan Island to the Île de Montréal, the Adirondack travels one of the most scenic train routes in the world. Over its 381 miles, this once-daily Amtrak train passes through the scenic Hudson River Valley and along Lake Champlain with Vermont’s Green Mountains rising from across the water. It passes by several historic sites, West Point Military Academy and popular tourist destinations like Saratoga Springs and Ticonderoga.
The Adirondack began its life in 1971 as one of the first state-sponsored Amtrak services, a new addition to the Amtrak’s early, barebones, national network. Before Amtrak, the Delaware & Hudson and New York Central railroads operated two New York–Montreal trains, the daylight Laurentian and overnight Montreal Limited. However, like dozens of other trains nationwide, neither made the cut into the pared-down Amtrak system.
The energy crises of the 1970s changed the situation. For the first time since World War II, rail travel looked more favorable. The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) signed a contract with Amtrak to sponsor a restored New York City-Montreal rail service, using an extension of an existing New York-Albany Empire Service train.
Another difference from today is that the Adiondack ran as a section of New York-Buffalo Empire Service train, with the Montréal-bound cars coupled and uncoupled at the Albany-Rensselaer station.
On August 5, 1974, the Adirondack had its first day of service, a ceremonial run that according to the New York Times, “was greeted by bands, bunting, flag-waving crowds and orating politicians”. The VIPs included then New York State Transportation Commissioner Raymond T. Schuler and Governor Malcolm Wilson, who made a pitch for a $250 million state rail bond. The bond passed later that year, triggering a major upgrade of the New York-Albany-Niagara Falls “Empire Corridor”.
The New York Times continued, “…As the nine‐car train made its way north along the Vermont border, towns that had been without passenger service since 1971 turned out in colorful force to welcome the Adirondack back to the Albany‐Montreal corridor. The hoopla included… a salute from speedboat enthusiasts on picturesque Lake Champlain… [At Saratoga Springs] about 1,000 people were on hand, including the town’s Bethesda Black Knights Bugle and Drum Corps, folk singers from Cafe Lena, horseplayers and public officials. Costumed characters from the current production of the musical, Pinocchio, danced on the station platform, and a young man in Revolutionary War dress was symbolic of the nearby Saratoga battlefield… [Plattsburgh] outdid them all with a schoolboy swing band, a display of ancient automobiles at the station and a crowd of 700 to 800 people to welcome back ‘The Train’.”
The first incarnation of the Adirondack was unique. Short of cars, Amtrak and the NYSDOT contracted with the Delaware & Hudson Railway (D&H), the freight railroad north of Albany, to provide the locomotives and coaches. The railroad also received a $3.2 million investment from the state to upgrade its tracks, repair locomotives and coaches and reopen several rail stations for passenger service.
Despite being an Amtrak train, the D&H ran the Adirondack as if it were its own train, down to the tablecloths, menus, and chinaware which displayed the railroad’s logo and blue and yellow corporate colors. It provided the engine crews, conductors, dining car staff and coach “hostesses”. In addition to coaches, the D&H offered dining and dome cars first leased from Canadian Pacific and then later provided by Amtrak.
Another difference from today is that the Adirondack ran as a section of a New York-Buffalo Empire Service train, with the Montreal-bound cars coupled and uncoupled at the Albany-Rensselaer station.
Now, the Adirondack runs solo as its own train, though locomotives are still switched, and additional New York-Albany coaches are sometimes added in Albany.
The initial route of the Adirondack was also slightly different. The train skipped Schenectady by running up the D&H line from Albany to Mechanicville before returning to the current route south of Saratoga Springs. With the construction of a new downtown Schenectady Station, using the bond money supported by Governor Wilson on the Adirondack’s inaugural run, the train switched to its current route in October 1977.
Amtrak was not entirely happy with the bold approbation of one of its trains by the D&H. In March 1977, Amtrak replaced the D&H trains with new, state-of-the-art Rohr RTL “Turboliner” trains. With big windows, the new gas-turbine trains provided a great view to passengers of the passing scenery. Later, after the retirement of the Turboliners in the mid-1990s, the current Amfleet equipment became the standard for the Adirondack.
The Adirondack in the 1970s using D&H’s Also RS3 locomotive and coaches. Location: Montréal | Photo Courtesy of Kent Patterson
Looking to future, Amtrak hopes to eliminate the lengthy border and customs stop at Rousses Point by opening a new joint USA-Canada preclearance border inspection facility at Montreal Central Station. This will not only be more convenient for passengers but also reduce travel time.
As of 2019 and in one form or another, the Adirondack has run daily for 45 years, thanks to the support of New York State and the dedication of the railroad workers, who have ensured the safety and comfort of generations of passengers making the trip between two great global metropolises through some of prettiest countryside that can be found in the Amtrak system.
Lineage and Honors
The 15th Transportation Corps Battalion (Aircraft Maintenance and Supply) was constituted on October 15, 1957, as the 15th Aviation Company, 1st Cavalry Division and was activated in Korea.
In September 1963, the unit was reorganized and redesignated Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 15th Aviation Battalion and its organic elements were constituted and activated concurrently.
The Battalion was redesignated and converted to the 15th Transportation Corps Battalion as part of the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) on July 1, 1965.
The Battalion deployed to the Republic of Vietnam with the 1st Cavalry Division in September 1965.
The Battalion was inactivated at Fort Lewis, Washington on April 28, 1971.
Awarded Presidential Unit Citation for the Pleiku Campaign, October 23 to November 25, 1965.
Source: The 1st Cavalry Division Vietnam, August 1965 to December 1969