Douglas O-8

Douglas O-8



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Douglas O-8

The Douglas O-8 was a single aircraft based on the O-2 but powered by a Curtiss radial engine in place of the Liberty engine of the original.

The O-2 was a Liberty engined power observation aircraft that won a competitive test for an aircraft to replace the aging DH-4s of the US Air Service. It was an equal span biplane, of mixed construction, with a metal framed fuselage, wooden wings and a largely fabric covering.

The O-8 was ordered as part of the initial contract for 75 aircraft. Like the Douglas O-7 and Douglas O-9 it was originally meant to be powered by a Packard engine, in this case an inverted Packard 1A-1500, but it was eventually completed with a 400hp Curtiss R-1454 nine-cylinder radial engine.

The sole O-8 was later converted to O-2A standard by giving it a Liberty engine and night flying equipment.


I Was There: When the DC-8 Went Supersonic

On August 21, 1961, pilot William Magruder, copilot Paul Patten, flight engineer Joseph Tomich, and flight test engineer Richard H. Edwards took Douglas DC-8-43 no. N9604Z for a test flight at Edwards Air Force Base in California. The aircraft exceeded Mach 1—the only intentional supersonic flight by an airliner other than the Concorde and the Tu-144. Bill Wasserzieher interviewed Richard Edwards in May 2007.

From This Story

While climbing to altitude, N9604Z was escorted by a bona fide speedster, an F-104 flown by Chuck Yeager. (Courtesy Richard H. Edwards) It takes a village to reach Mach 1.01. The flight and ground crews for the DC-8 supersonic run included flight test engineer Richard H. Edwards, third from left, and pilot Bill Magruder, in white shirt behind sign. (Courtesy Richard H. Edwards)

Photo Gallery

BW: Tell me about the supersonic DC-8 flight.

RHE: That was Bill Magruder’s idea. Very smart—get it out there, show the airplane can survive this and not fall apart. Boeing will never try it [with the 707] because they don’t want to be second. I’m sorry if that affects anybody but that’s just the way it was. We took it up to 10 miles up, 52,000 feet—that’s a record—and put it in a half-a-G pushover. Bill maintained about 50 pounds of push. He didn’t trim it for the dive so that it would want to pull out by itself. In the dive, at about 45,000 feet, it went to Mach 1.01 for maybe 16 seconds, then he recovered. But the recovery was a little scary. When he pulled back, the elevator was ineffective it didn’t do anything, so he said, “Well, I’ll use the stabilizer,” and the stabilizer wouldn’t run. It stalled, because of the load. What he did, because he was smart, is something that no other pilot would do: He pushed over into the dive more, which relieved the load on the stabilizer. He was able to run the [stabilizer] motor, with the relieved load, and he recovered at about 35,000 feet. That’s an unofficial supersonic record, payload record, and of course an altitude record for a commercial transport. I think it took about 10 years for the SSTs to beat that.

BW: Magruder won the Society for Experimental Test Pilots award, the Iven Kincheloe.

RHE: Yes, he also gave a speech on the Mach 1 dive, and warned pilots that a similar problem might happen to them. He was well known in the industry and very articulate, well educated, with a lot of new ideas. I think Douglas would have liked him to stay, but he made the decision to go to Lockheed.

BW: How much planning went into the flight?

RHE: They had to determine the pushover load factor, the dive angle, to be sure they got to Mach 1.01 at a rather high altitude, so the airspeed wouldn’t be that high up there. [The speed of sound at altitude] is not 700 miles per hour: it’s a lot less. The aerodynamics department, I think under Roger Shaufele, prepared a set of charts. The Mach number itself isn’t used in a dive as a target because it’s much more accurate to use airspeed. So every thousand feet I would read off to Bill the airspeed [he needed] at the next altitude. As we were coming down, I was talking almost all the time because at a descent rate of 500 feet per second, every two seconds we were 1,000 feet lower. Looking out the window—which I stopped doing—it looked like it was straight down.

We took off at Long Beach and flew to Edwards. We only had fuel for a half-hour flight once we got there, because we wanted to be light, to climb. The night before, at Long Beach, somebody had dinged the slots [devices under the wing leading edges that improved low-speed lift], and they didn’t work. We took off with flaps up, which is kind of a no-no because at takeoff thrust, you can’t control the airplane if it loses an engine with flaps up—there’s an interlock on the rudder.

BW: Was it a tug or something that dinged up the slots?

RHE: I’m not sure. It was something that happened in maintenance. The question was: Do we go or not? Bill said, “Well, we can take off with no flaps and the airplane will be all right—if we don’t lose an engine.”

BW: Amazing the number of times people with tugs moving airplanes have managed to do that.

RHE: I did it myself, calibrating the flaps. We’d go down in two-degree increments and hand-mark the dials in the cockpit so the pilot would know where the flaps [settings] are. The crew chief told me to put the flaps down. Nobody saw the crew [work] stand out there, and we dinged [a flap]. Fortunately, the crew chief was a nice guy and took the blame: He said he should have looked.

BW: What did [going supersonic] feel like?

RHE: Well, really, the sensation was not there at Mach 1.01. At .96 Mach it buffeted for a while….

BW: So there was a little bit of a wall….

RHE: Yeah, and a little above .96 it went away, and it came back as we slowed down to .96. The thing that impressed me the most was the dark, black sky. I’d never seen anything like that. I’m sure our military pilots are familiar with it. I had mounted some cameras in the middle of the airplane, shooting out each window. I wanted to catch the [F-100 and F-104] chase airplanes out there, but I never saw the chase airplanes in the pictures. But it did show the ailerons flapping up as the shock wave left—I think it was about .97 Mach. They went up about five degrees, I think—both sides, fortunately.

BW: What did it feel like to walk on the ground again after you set down?

RHE: We were all smiles. We weren’t frightened, but we were more or less happy that we had got there. Initially, on all the flight tests we’d shoot for maximum design Mach number on each new design, which was .95 Mach. We’d normally overshoot a little so we’d be sure we would get it, so we got up to .97 quite a few times. And Bill said, “Well, if we can get up to .97, we can get up to 1.01. That’s not so far away.”

BW: You must have felt like you were a part of aviation history, a little like an early astronaut.

RHE: A little bit. [Douglas Aircraft Company president] Jackson McGowen came down and met us at the executive lunch room, the first time I’d ever been in there, and bought us all lunch. So we were kind of pleased with that. And John Londelius, VP of Flight Test, gave us each a $1,000 bonus, so that was rather nice. That was back when a thousand dollars was worth a thousand dollars.

N9604Z was delivered to Canadian Pacific Air Lines, where it served for nearly 19 years. In 1980, it was sold for scrap.

Aviation historian Bill Wasserzieher interviewed Douglas employees for the Douglas White Oaks Trust project, which comprises some 50 oral histories.


Head-to-head

United was the launch customer for the DC-8. The first unit that arrived with the airline was registration N8004U, which was the eighth one ever built. It was given the nickname of Mainliner Capt R T Freng, and United took control of it on June 3rd, 1959.

Over the next three months, five more units joined United for training purposes. However, the operator took its time to deploy the plane for passenger trips. Despite being the first to receive the type, it entered it into service on the same day as Delta.

United’s first-ever jet service was on September 18th, 1959. Its DC-8 performed a transcontinental operation between San Francisco and New York Idlewild. Due to both flights being conducted in different time zones, Delta’s trip to Atlanta from New York is in the record books as the first DC-8 passenger service.

Nonetheless, both carriers would have been ecstatic with the progress made. They were able to cut flying times between major cities by up to 40 percent. Moreover, they could carry nearly twice the amount of passengers and cargo than the larger piston-engine planes of the time. In a single class setting, 177 customers could fit on these original DC-8s.


Douglas O-8 - History

Welcome to Famous Trials, the Web’s largest and most visited collection of original essays, trial transcripts and exhibits, maps, images, and other materials relating to the greatest trials in world history.

“Famous Trials” first appeared on the Web in 1995, making this site older than about 99.97% of all websites. In 2016, the site seemed to be showing its age. So Famous Trials 2.0 (thanks to my great support team) debuted in 2017 with a cleaner look, additional video and audio clips, and new features that should improve navigation around the site.

You will not find every trial deserving of being called “famous” on this site. If the famous trial you were hoping to find is not included, click on the “Other Famous Trials” link for information about additional famous trials. Decisions as to which trials to include on Famous Trials were entirely mine and inevitably reflect my interests and biases.

What criteria guided my choices? Many trials might be called famous. Each century, at least several dozen trials are heralded by someone as “the trial of the century.” Quite a few trials create a huge buzz in the months following verdict, but then slip quickly—and, in many cases, justifiably—from the public’s mind.

I’d point to two benchmarks that most guided my decision to include a particular trial. First, the trial .


“Duraglas” Trademark used by Owens- Illinois Glass Company

Duraglas (in a cursive script with only the first letter actually capitalized) was registered by Owens-Illinois Glass Company, based in Toledo, Ohio at that time, on September 23, 1941. The official registration number was #0390467. “First use anywhere” and “First use in commerce” was stated on the paperwork (submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office) to have been on September 4, 1940.

This is (or was) one of the most commonly-seen trademarks in the history of the United States. The brand name is found embossed on innumerable glass bottles, jars and jugs made by the Owens-Illinois Glass Company throughout the 1940s, 󈧶s, and up into the 1960s, although some bottles made even into the 1970s are seen with the logo. The name appears often on either the base or the heel of the container. Owens-Illinois had been working for years on improving their container glass formula, increasing it’s strength and durability in order to produce bottles with less weight, thus increasing profitability. This new, stronger glass formula was given the trade name “DURAGLAS”.

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The trademark was, essentially, applied to most of their typical container glass being manufactured during that time period (although I don’t see liquor or wine bottles marked “Duraglas” – Evidently Owens-Illinois didn’t use it for those types of bottles)?

Soda and mineral water bottles, beer bottles, vinegar and apple cider jugs, milk bottles, tobacco humidors, bleach, cleanser and other chemical bottles, kerosene drip jars, druggist/prescription bottles, sauce and other food bottles, prune juice bottles and many other types of containers were marked in this way. Please see my page on that company with information on other marks they used, at this link: Owens-Illinois Glass Company.


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How Holocausts Happen : The United States in Central America

"History repeats itself, but it never repeats itself exactly," observes Douglas Porpora in this powerful indictment of U.S. intervention in Central America. Comparing the general public’s reaction to the Holocaust in Nazi Germany with American public opinion of U.S. participation in the genocidal policies of Nicaraguan counter-revolutionary forces, and the governments of Guatemala and El Salvador among others, Porpora demonstrates that moral indifference to the suffering of others was the common response. With reference to Hannah Arendt’s thesis of the banality of evil, he develops the concept of a "Holocaust-like event" and examines how even a democratic society can be capable of something on the order of a Holocaust.

Unlike other accounts of the Holocaust and genocide, this book focuses on the citizenry served or ruled by genocidal governments rather than on the governments themselves. Porpora argues that moral indifference and lack of interest in critical reflection are key factors that enable Holocaust-like events to happen And he characterizes American society as being typically indifferent to the fate of other people, uninformed, and anti-intellectual.


A brief history

The British de Havilland Comet blazed a trail for commercial jets after World War II. Unfortunately, structural problems caused a series of catastrophic accidents, eventually leading to the jet’s grounding and downfall. With these public disasters, enthusiasm and support for jet-powered air travel were dampened.

According to Boeing, its Company President William Allen and his management, however, were convinced that this was the future of commercial aviation and thus “bet the company” on developing a safe and viable passenger jet plane.

After years of development and launching early prototypes, the Boeing 707 took its first flight in December 1957.

The Douglas DC-8 wasn’t actually too far behind the 707 in terms of a first flight. The DC-8 took to the skies less than six months after the 707’s first flight, in May 1958.

With comparable speeds and overlap in passenger capacity, the two aircraft were rivals with one another – fighting intensely for airline customers.

Stay informed: Sign up for our daily aviation news digest .


Page:History of the Black Douglas.pdf/8

this manner the garrison of the Castle marched to church. The solemn service of the day proceeded at first without interruption, but before being quite finished, a loud flourish of trumpets rung through the church, accompanied with loud cries of "A Douglas! A Douglas!" being the Douglas slogan or war-cry, and which was the signal agreed upon by the Scots.

The English seized their arms, and endeavoured to rush out of the church but they were met by Thomas Dickson, and one or two more, who rushed upon them sword in hand. The signal, however, having been made too soon, Dickson was overpowered and slain before assistance could reach him. Douglas and his men now came up, and furious at finding his faithful adherent slain, he performed such deeds of valour, that the English were slaughtered around him in heaps, and the remainder made prisoners. Douglas next assailed the castle, but instead of meeting with resistance, he found the gates open, and that part of the garrison which was left at home, busied in cooking provisions for those who were at church: so he and his followers entered and sat down to the dinner prepared for their enemies.

But Sir James Douglas, who was no less prudent than valiant, soon perceived, that although he had now got possession of his own castle, yet the English were strong in the country, and it would be impossible with his limited numbers to keep it. He therefore resolved to destroy all the provisions which the English had stored up in the Castle, and render the place unavailing to them.


History of Ship One

DC-8
Ship One, registered N8008D, was rolled out of the Douglas Aircraft – Long
Beach, CA – Factory on April 9, 1958. The Prototype DC-8 made its first flight
on May 30, 1958 in front of over 95,000 employees and spectators and flew
for 2 Hours and 7 Minutes on the initial flight. The next test flight occurred
on June 4, 1958 and between June and late August Ship One accumulated 72 hours
of in-flight testing in a total of 22 flights. Ship One was later joined by
Ship Two (N8018D) a DC-8-21 in November 1958 and Ships 3 & 4 (N8028D &
N8038D), a DC-8-12 & another DC-8-11 in December 1958 and January 1959
respectively, for further flight testing and FAA Certification. Ship’s 2,
3 & 4 were all destined to be delivered to United Air Lines. Ship 7 (N8068D)
a DC-8-33, the first Intercontinental Version of the DC-8 & destined for
Pan American, joined the testing program in February 1959. A total of 10 DC-8s
were used in a comprehensive testing program to permit the FAA Certification
of all of the early DC-8 versions in a short period of time. This enabled
the DC-8 Series 10, 20, 30 & 40 all to enter into airline service between
September 1959 and March 1960 which substantially cut the lead time that Boeing
had with the introduction of the different versions of the 707. Initially
Douglas was 3 years behind Boeing in their jet program but through the innovation
and dedication of the Douglas Team the DC-8 entered service just 11 months
behind the 707.

Please see the ‘DC-8 Technical Data’ Section for more information on the
different DC-8 versions that were made.

Ship
One was certified by the FAA on August 31, 1959. The first two DC-8 Series
11s entered airline service with Delta Air Lines and United Air Lines on September
18, 1959. Delta beat United’s first DC-8 flight by only a few hours. In 1960
Ship One was re-engined with new Pratt & Whitney JT3D Turbofan Engines
which were more powerful, fuel efficient and quieter than the older turbojet
engines. The aircraft was then used to certify the first Turbofan Version
of the DC-8 – The Series 51 – which first flew on December 20, 1960. The first
Series 50 was FAA Certified on April 28, 1961. Beginning in June 1961 Ship
One entered into airline service and ultimately was operated by six different
airlines (see below – airline operators are highlighted
in blue ) until it’s retirement in January 1982. This valuable &
irreplaceable piece of aviation history sat in the desert at Marana, Arizona
for nearly 20 years and was never saved and preserved by Boeing (who subsequently
had acquired Douglas/McDonnell Douglas), any of the airlines who operated
the DC-8 or an aviation museum.

SADLY, SHIP ONE MET IT’S FINAL DEMISE IN 2001 WHEN
IT WAS SCRAPPED.


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