Pickering, Timothy - History

Pickering, Timothy - History

Pickering, Timothy (1745-1829) Secretary of State, Secretary of War: Timothy Pickering was born on July 17, 1745, in Salem, Massachusetts. After graduating from Harvard in 1763, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1768. Nevertheless, Pickering practiced law very little, and did not achieve distinction as a lawyer. He served as register of deeds for Essex County, while showing an interest in military affairs. He applied his military studies while serving in the Revolutionary War. Pickering published "An Easy Plan of Discipline for a Militia," which was used in the Continental Army until Baron von Steuben's "Blue Book." After serving in various judicial positions, Pickering became adjutant-general in 1776, under General Washington. Impatient and critical of Washington's caution and self-restraint, Pickering incorrectly predicted that the war would be over in one year. He was present at the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and was elected a member of the Board of War. Serving as Quartermaster-General of the Army in 1780, he was present at the surrender of Cornwallis. Pickering was largely responsible for the efficient functioning of the quartermaster's department. Along with Alexander Hamilton and Patrick Henry, he protested the cruel treatment that drove many former Loyalists out of the country after the Patriot victory. When he left the army in 1785, Pickering became a merchant in Philadelphia. Two years later, he and his family moved to Wyoming. He became involved in disturbances related to the arrest of John Franklin, leader of insurgent Connecticut settlers. Pickering's house was attacked by rioters, but he escaped being taken as a hostage by escaping into the woods. He made his way back to Philadelphia, where he was elected to attend the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He was not among the signers of the document, however. When he returned to Wyoming, toward the end of 1788, he was kidnapped by a band of masked men, and kept prisoner for 3 weeks. Unable to convince him to write a letter to request the release of John Franklin, and aware that militia were pursuing them; the kidnappers released him with the promise that Pickering would intercede for them.

After serving at the convention to draft a constitution for the state of Pennsylvania, Pickering was appointed by President Washington to negotiate a treaty with the Seneca Indians. In July, 1791, he succeeded in presenting an important treaty between the United States and the Six Nations. Pickering was appointed Postmaster-general in 1791, an office he held until 1795, the year in which he was appointed Secretary of War. At that time, the Department of War included the Department of the Navy and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pickering was instrumental in founding the US Military Academy at West Point. After serving as acting Secretary of State, he was officially appointed to the position. In May of 1800, however, Pickering was dismissed from office; after the disagreements between President Adams and his Cabinet over the "XYZ Affair." Pickering returned to a home on the frontier near Pennsylvania. Deeply in debt, he was relieved when some citizens of Boston purchased some of his land. This put him on more secure financial footing, and he decided to move to Massachusetts. There, he became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and a US Senator. Known to be an extreme Federalist, he was hanged in effigy in Philadelphia in 1809; charged with embezzlement the following year and formally censured by the Senate for a technical violation. He was cleared of the charges and the violation, since both were based on political animosity. After the end of his term, he retired to his farm in Massachusetts. He returned to Congress, then served on the Executive Council of Massachusetts. Pickering spent the rest of his life in retirement in Salem, Massachusetts, where he died on January 29, 1829.


Timothy Pickering

A Federalist politician, Timothy Pickering was appointed to several federal positions by President George Washington, most notably Postmaster General, Secretary of War, and Secretary of State. He later served in the Senate and in the House of Representatives.

Born in Salem, Massachusetts in 1745, Pickering graduated from Harvard College in 1763 and worked as a clerk for John Higginson, the Essex County Register of Deeds. He studied law and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1768, but he did not practice.

Interested in military strategy, Pickering eventually became colonel of the Essex County militia in 1775. A year later, he published An Easy Plan of Discipline for the Militia, a manual for colonial militia and Continental Army officers employed to train new recruits. During the War of Independence, Pickering primarily played an administrative role, though he did lead the Essex County militia to block the British retreat after the Battle of Concord. In 1777, General Washington appointed Pickering Adjutant General of the Continental Army and the Continental Congress elected him to the Board of War. Highlighting Pickering&rsquos ability, General Washington described him as &ldquoa great Military genius, cultivated by an industrious attention to the Study of War, and as a Gentleman of liberal education, distinguished zeal and great method and activity in Business.&rdquo [1] Following his insistence on the need for the Quartermaster&rsquos Department to be reformed, he was appointed Quartermaster General by Congress in 1780.

At the end of the war, Pickering moved to Philadelphia and started a trading operation with his friend Samuel Hodgdon, a merchant. During this time, Pickering purchased land in then-northwestern Pennsylvania, which he helped to organize as Luzerne County in 1786. The Pennsylvania State Assembly asked Pickering to mediate land disputes, particularly between Pennsylvania and Connecticut claimants. In the hope of convincing Pickering to recognize their claims, members of the Connecticut faction held him hostage in the woods for twenty days. He represented Luzerne County at the 1787 convention that ratified the Constitution of the United States and the Pennsylvania state constitutional convention from 1789 to 1790.

President Washington asked Pickering to negotiate and settle several treaties with Native Americans, notably with the Six Nations chiefs at Tioga in November 1790 and at Newtown Point in July 1791. In recognition of Pickering&rsquos efforts in these negotiations, President Washington appointed him to be Postmaster General in 1791. Even in this role, Pickering continued to play an active part in negotiations with Native Americans, particularly in the 1794 Treaty of Canandaigua with the Iroquois Confederacy.

A year later, Washington made Pickering Secretary of War. In this post, he oversaw General Anthony Wayne&rsquo negotiations for the Treaty of Greenville and the construction of the frigates United States, Constitution, and Constellation. Following Secretary of State Edmund Randolph&rsquos resignation, Washington appointed Pickering ad interim Secretary of State on August 20, 1795 and then Secretary of State.

Pickering&rsquos term as Secretary of State was dominated by conflict with France. He sympathized with Great Britain and negotiations over Jay&rsquos Treaty further hardened his anti-French views. He opposed the French in the &ldquoXYZ Affair,&rdquo and when the dispatches were published, he vehemently endorsed war with France. Pickering was also an advocate of the Alien and Sedition Laws. As the Federalists fractured, President Johns Adams accused Pickering of siding with Alexander Hamilton over himself. Adams dismissed Pickering from office in May 1800.

In 1803, Pickering was elected to the Senate and was reelected in 1805. Anxious about the potential consequences of President Thomas Jefferson&rsquos administration and the Federalists&rsquo declining power, Pickering proposed the creation of a &ldquoNorthern confederacy&rdquo that would be &ldquoexempt from the corrupt and corrupting influence and oppression of the aristocratic democrats of the South. [2] Ultimately, this plan never came to fruition. While in Congress, Pickering strongly opposed the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution and the Louisiana Purchase as he believed they would both increase the power of Republicans at the expense of New England Federalists. In 1811, after he read a confidential document openly during a Senate debate, he became the first senator to be censured. He lost his bid for re-election and return to his farm for a year. Pickering was then elected to the House of Representatives and served for two terms.

[1] George Washington to the President of Congress, 24 May 1777, in The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745-1799 ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, vol. 8 May 1, 1777-July 31, 1777 (Washington, United States Government Print Office, 1939), 115.

[2] Timothy Pickering to Richard Peters, December 24, 1803 and to George Cabot, January 29, 1804 in Octavius Pickering and Charles Wentworth Upham, The Life of Timothy Pickering vol. 3 (Boston, Little, Brown, and Company, 1867), 154.

Bibliography

Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering and the American Republic. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1980.

Gannon, Kevin M. &ldquoEscaping &lsquoMr. Jefferson&rsquos Plan of Destruction&rsquo: New England Federalists and the Idea of a Northern Confederacy, 1803-1804.&rdquo Journal of the Early Republic 21, no. 3 (2001): 413&ndash43.

McLean, David. Timothy Pickering and the Age of the American Revolution. New York: Ayer Co Pub, 1982.

Pickering, Octavius, and Charles Wentworth Upham. The Life of Timothy Pickering. 4 vols. Boston, Little, Brown, and Company, 1867.


Colonel Timothy Pickering

Colonel Timothy Pickering

Artist: Charles Wilson Peale
Independence NHP

Pickering, Timothy. 1745-1829.

Timothy Pickering was born into a fifth generation New England family in Salem, Massachusetts. Graduating from Harvard University in 1763, he passed the bar and became a lawyer. He performed minimal services as a lawyer, preferring to spend his time holding various civil positions in town. As an officer in the Massachusetts militia he wrote and published guidelines for military operations titled "An Easy Plan of Discipline For a Militia". This widely popular book was used throughout the colonies at the outbreak of the American Revolution.

Pickering, now a colonel, stayed in the militia and did not immediately join the American army full time. In May 1777 that would change when, upon the request of George Washington, he became Adjutant General in the army. Pickering went on to succeed Nathanael Greene as Quartermaster General of the army in 1780.

As Quartermaster General, Pickering was greatly concerned with the welfare of the common soldier. He was always angry with those he believed did not do their best to help the soldiers. He referred to his position as Quartermaster General as "an office so burdensome and a service so ungrateful." However, he remained in the position until 1785 when he finally resigned.

Pickering temporarily returned to private life. In 1795 he held the positions of Secretary of War and Secretary of State. Dismissed from the latter position in 1800, he later served in the United States Senate and House of Representatives.


Pickering, Timothy - History

Pickering, Timothy (1745-1829) Secretary of State, Secretary of War: Timothy Pickering was born on July 17, 1745, in Salem, Massachusetts. After graduating from Harvard in 1763, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1768. Nevertheless, Pickering practiced law very little, and did not achieve distinction as a lawyer. He served as register of deeds for Essex County, while showing an interest in military affairs. He applied his military studies while serving in the Revolutionary War. Pickering published "An Easy Plan of Discipline for a Militia," which was used in the Continental Army until Baron von Steuben's "Blue Book." After serving in various judicial positions, Pickering became adjutant-general in 1776, under General Washington. Impatient and critical of Washington's caution and self-restraint, Pickering incorrectly predicted that the war would be over in one year. He was present at the Battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and was elected a member of the Board of War. Serving as Quartermaster-General of the Army in 1780, he was present at the surrender of Cornwallis. Pickering was largely responsible for the efficient functioning of the quartermaster's department. Along with Alexander Hamilton and Patrick Henry, he protested the cruel treatment that drove many former Loyalists out of the country after the Patriot victory. When he left the army in 1785, Pickering became a merchant in Philadelphia. Two years later, he and his family moved to Wyoming. He became involved in disturbances related to the arrest of John Franklin, leader of insurgent Connecticut settlers. Pickering's house was attacked by rioters, but he escaped being taken as a hostage by escaping into the woods. He made his way back to Philadelphia, where he was elected to attend the 1787 Constitutional Convention. He was not among the signers of the document, however. When he returned to Wyoming, toward the end of 1788, he was kidnapped by a band of masked men, and kept prisoner for 3 weeks. Unable to convince him to write a letter to request the release of John Franklin, and aware that militia were pursuing them the kidnappers released him with the promise that Pickering would intercede for them.

After serving at the convention to draft a constitution for the state of Pennsylvania, Pickering was appointed by President Washington to negotiate a treaty with the Seneca Indians. In July, 1791, he succeeded in presenting an important treaty between the United States and the Six Nations. Pickering was appointed Postmaster-general in 1791, an office he held until 1795, the year in which he was appointed Secretary of War. At that time, the Department of War included the Department of the Navy and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pickering was instrumental in founding the US Military Academy at West Point. After serving as acting Secretary of State, he was officially appointed to the position. In May of 1800, however, Pickering was dismissed from office after the disagreements between President Adams and his Cabinet over the "XYZ Affair." Pickering returned to a home on the frontier near Pennsylvania. Deeply in debt, he was relieved when some citizens of Boston purchased some of his land. This put him on more secure financial footing, and he decided to move to Massachusetts. There, he became Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and a US Senator. Known to be an extreme Federalist, he was hanged in effigy in Philadelphia in 1809 charged with embezzlement the following year and formally censured by the Senate for a technical violation. He was cleared of the charges and the violation, since both were based on political animosity. After the end of his term, he retired to his farm in Massachusetts. He returned to Congress, then served on the Executive Council of Massachusetts. Pickering spent the rest of his life in retirement in Salem, Massachusetts, where he died on January 29, 1829.


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About Timothy Pickering, US Secretary of State

Timothy Pickering. He was born, July 17, 1745, Salem, Mass., and died Jan. 29, 1829, Salem, Mass. American Revolutionary officer and Federalist politician who served (1795-1800) with distinction in the first two U.S. Cabinets. During the Revolutionary War, Pickering served in several capacities under Gen. George Washington, among them quartermaster general (1780-85). In 1786, after taking up residence in Philadelphia, he helped resolve the dispute with Connecticut settlers over claims to Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley and helped develop the town of Wilkes-Barre. Pickering served as Indian commissioner (1790-95), postmaster general (1791-95), secretary of war (1795), and secretary of state (1795-1800). He was dismissed from office by Pres. John Adams after a policy dispute. During the administrations of Jefferson and Madison, Pickering led the Federalist opposition in Congress, serving as senator from Massachusetts (1803-11) and as a member of the House of Representatives (1813-17). Remaining friendly to England and fearing the power of Napoleon, he bitterly opposed the War of 1812. After his retirement from Congress, he devoted himself to agricultural experimentation and education.

Born 6 Jul 1745 in Salem, Essex, Massachusetts Bay

Son of Timothy Pickering and Mary (Wingate) Pickering

Brother of Sarah Pickering, Mary Pickering, Elizabeth (Pickering) Gardner, Lois (Pickering) Goole, Eunice (Pickering) Wingate and Lydia Pickering (Williams) Lyman

Husband of Rebecca (White) Pickering — married 8 Apr 1776 in Bradford, Essex, Massachusetts

Father of John Pickering, Henry Pickering, Charles Pickering, William Pickering, Edward Pickering, George Pickering, Octavius Pickering, Elizabeth Pickering and Mary (Pickering) Nichols

Died 29 Jan 1829 in Salem, Essex, Massachusetts, United States

Profile last modified 9 May 2019 | Created 10 Jun 2014

Timothy Pickering is notable.

Preceded by 2nd Secretary Edmund Randolph

Preceded by 1st Secretary Henry Knox

Preceded by 1st Postmaster General Samuel Osgood

Preceded by Dwight Foster Timothy Pickering 3rd United States Secretary of State State Dept 1795�

2nd United States Secretary of War US Secretary of War 1795

2nd United States Postmaster General Seal of the US Post Office Dept. 1791�

US Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts Seal of the US Senate 1803� Succeeded by 4th Secretary John Marshall

Succeeded by 3rd Secretary James McHenry

Succeeded by 3rd Postmaster General Joseph Habersham

Succeeded by Joseph Bradley Varnum Biography

Timothy was born on July 6, 1745.[1] He was married on April 8, 1776.[2] He was the 2nd U.S. Secretary of War 2nd U.S. Post Master General and 3rd U.S. Secretary of State

↑ The Essex Institute, Vital Records of Salem, Massachusetts to the End of the Year 1849 Volume II - Births M - Z (Salem, Mass. 1918)(Free e-book) (Records are also available at ma-vitalrecords.org) p. 173 ↑ The Essex Institute, Vital Records of Salem, Massachusetts to the End of the Year 1849 Volume IV - Marriages M - Z (Salem, Mass. 1924) p. 194 Find A Grave: Memorial #20978 Timothy Pickering on Wikipedia Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

A Patriot of the American Revolution for MASSACHUSETTS with the rank of COLONEL. DAR Ancestor #: A091047

Timothy Pickering 1745-1829

Parents: Timothy Pickering 1703-1778 and Mary Wingate 1708-1784

Wife Rebecca White 1754-1828

The Pickering House (circa 1651) is a Colonial house, owned and occupied by ten successive generations of the Pickering family including Colonel Timothy Pickering. This house is believed to be the oldest house in the United States continuously occupied by one family.

Timothy Pickering:

  • Massachusetts Militia, Continental Army, Revolutionary War
  • United States Senator from Massachusetts March 4, 1809- March 4, 1811
  • Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts, 3rd District March 4, 1813-March 4, 1815
  • Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts, 2nd District March 4, 1815-March 4, 1817
  • 2nd U.S. Post Master General
  • 2nd U.S. Secretary of War
  • 3rd U.S. Secretary of State

Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745 – January 29, 1829) was a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.

Pickering was born in Salem, Massachusetts to Deacon Timothy and Mary Wingate Pickering. He was one of nine children and the younger brother of John Pickering (not to be confused with the New Hampshire judge) who would eventually serve as Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He attended grammar school in Salem and graduated from Harvard University in 1763. Salem minister William Bentley noted on Pickering: "From his youth his townsmen proclaim him assuming, turbulent, & headstrong."

After graduating from Harvard, Pickering returned to Salem where he began working for John Higginson, the town clerk and Essex County register of deeds. Pickering was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1768 and, in 1774, he succeeded Higginson as register of deeds. Soon after, he was elected to represent Salem in the Massachusetts General Court and served as a justice in the Essex County Court of Common Pleas. On April 8, 1776, he married Rebecca White of Salem.

In January 1766, Pickering was commissioned a lieutenant in the Essex County militia. He was promoted to captain three years later. In 1769, he published his ideas on drilling soldiers in the Essex Gazette. These were published in 1775 as "An Easy Plan for a Militia." The manual was used as the Continental Army drill book until replaced by Baron von Steuben's Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States.

In December 1776, he led a well-drilled regiment of the Essex County militia to New York, where General George Washington took notice and offered Pickering the position of adjutant general of the Continental Army in 1777. In this capacity he oversaw the building of the Great chain which was forged at the Stirling Iron Works. The chain blocked the Royal Navy from proceeding up the Hudson River past West Point and protected that important fort from attack for the duration of the conflict. He was widely praised for his work in supplying the troops during the remainder of the conflict. In August 1780, the Continental Congress elected Pickering Quartermaster General.

After the end of the American Revolution, Pickering made several failed attempts at financial success. In 1783, he embarked on a mercantile partnership with Samuel Hodgdon that failed two years later. In 1786, he moved to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania where he assumed a series of offices at the head of Luzerne County. When he attempted to evict Connecticut settlers living in the area, Pickering was captured and held hostage for nineteen days. In 1787, he was part of the Pennsylvania convention held to consider ratification of the United States Constitution.

After the first of Pickering's two successful attempts to make money speculating in Pennsylvania frontier land, now-President Washington appointed him commissioner to the Iroquois Indians and Pickering represented the United States in the negotiation of the Treaty of Canandaigua with the Iroquois in 1794.

Washington brought Pickering into the government, as Postmaster General in 1791. He remained in Washington's cabinet and then that of John Adams for nine years, serving as postmaster general until 1795, Secretary of War for a brief time in 1795, then Secretary of State from 1795 to 1800. As Secretary of State he is most remembered for his strong Federalist Party attachments to British causes, even willingness to wage war with France in service of these causes during the Adams administration. In 1799 Pickering hired Joseph Dennie as his private secretary.

After a quarrel with President John Adams over Adams's plan to make peace with France, Pickering was dismissed from office in May 1800. In 1802, Pickering and a band of Federalists, agitated at the lack of support for Federalists, attempted to gain support for the secession of New England from the Jeffersonian United States. The irony of a Federalist moving against the national government was not lost among his dissenters. He was named to the United States Senate as a senator from Massachusetts in 1803 as a member of the Federalist Party. He lost his Senate seat in 1811, and was elected to the United States House of Representatives in U.S. House election, 1812, where he remained until 1817. His congressional career is best remembered for his leadership of the New England secession movement (see Essex Junto and the Hartford Convention).

Later years and afterwards

After Pickering was denied re-election in 1816, he retired to Salem, where he lived as a farmer until his death in 1829, aged 83. In 1942, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Timothy Pickering was launched. She was lost off Sicily in 1945. Until the 1990s, Pickering's ancestral home, the circa 1651 Pickering House, was the oldest house in the United States to be owned by the same family continually.

Revolutionary War General, US congressman, senator, presidential cabinet secretery


Timothy Pickering, Jr. to Richard Devens, March 19, 1776

The selectmen of Salem this day delivered to John [Jeremiah] Obrien two hundred pounds of powder for the use of the privateers Diligent & Machias Liberty in the service of this colony, as will appear by the inclosed receipt. The said Obrien shewed us a letter from Francis Abbot written for you as Commissary General, to Richd Derby jr Esqr requesting him to furnish Obrien with that quantity of powder but as the town had purchased the whole his vessel brought home, Obrien applied to us and as the necessity appeared to be urgent we supplied him upon certain expectation of receiving the same quantity of you when requested, to be delivered at Salem without any expence to the town, or paid for at the price mentioned in the receipt, as the selectmen shd. chuse. Of all which they give you this early notice & pray that provision may be made for replacing the powder on the shortest notice, if they should judge it necessary for the town's safety. I am, sir, [&c.]


From Timothy Pickering

I learn that Mr Hammond has received letters of recall and that he expects to depart in three weeks.1 I am disposed to believe, from accidental intimations, that before his departure some useful and perhaps very important arrangements may be made to facilitate the compliance with the condition on which the advice of the Senate for ratifying the treaty was suspended and possibly for expediting the execution of that part of it which respects the posts.

The supreme court is to sit here next week, and perhaps the gentleman named for Chief Justice may arrive. Private information as well as publications of his recent conduct relative to the treaty, have fixed my opinion that the commission intended for him ought to be withheld.2

On the subject of the treaty I confess I feel extreme solicitude and for a special reason which can be communicated to you only in person. I entreat therefore that you will return with all convenient speed to the seat of Government. In the mean time, for the reason above referred to, I pray you to decide on no important political measure, in whatever form it may be presented to you.3

Mr Wolcott & I (Mr Bradford concurring) waited on Mr Randolph & urged his writing to request your return. He wrote in our presence: but we concluded a letter from one of us also expedient.4 With the utmost sincerity I subscribe myself yours and my country’s friend

(This letter is for your own eye alone).

1 . British minister George Hammond sailed to Great Britain from New York on 17 August.

2 . On 1 July, GW appointed John Rutledge to replace John Jay as chief justice of the Supreme Court.

Pickering referred to the recent gathering of South Carolina citizens to discuss their response to the Jay Treaty (see Charleston, S.C., Citizens to GW, 22 July). At the meeting, Rutledge presented a speech “of considerable length” and demonstrated “in a very striking manner, that the treaty was derogatory to the honor, destructive to the commerce, and highly injurious to the agricultural interests of the United States” ( City Gazette & Daily Advertiser [Charleston], 17 July see also Edmund Randolph to GW, 29 July, n.1).

The Supreme Court met on Monday, 3 August. Rutledge did not arrive in Philadelphia until 10 Aug., when he proceeded to take his seat in the court (see The Philadelphia Gazette & Universal Daily Advertiser, 12 Aug.). On 10 Dec., GW submitted Rutledge’s name to the Senate for an official nomination. Five days later that body rejected his appointment by a vote of 14 to 10 (see Senate Executive Journal, description begins Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America: From the commencement of the First, to the termination of the Nineteenth Congress . Vol. 1. Washington, D.C., 1828. description ends 1:194–96).

3 . Pickering referred to the intercepted dispatch of then-French minister Jean-Antoine-Joseph Fauchet. On 28 March an English frigate captured the Jean Bart, which carried dispatches from Fauchet to the French government, including No. 10, written on 31 Oct. 1794. The following May, the British Foreign Office sent a summary and then the original of the intercepted dispatch to George Hammond. The British minister received the dispatches in late July, contacted Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr., and on 26 July read a portion of the translated dispatch to him. Two days later he gave Wolcott the original (see Affidavit, 28 July, and the undated “Notes relative to Fauchet’s Letter,” both in CtHi : Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Papers). Wolcott wasted no time in sharing the dispatch with Secretary of War Pickering, who made his own translation.

The dispatch, as translated by Pickering and in the notes GW took concerning it, indicated that Secretary of State Edmund Randolph had shared with Fauchet news about the insurrection in western Pennsylvania and its impact on party alliances, and had suggested a strong association between Gov. Thomas Mifflin, his secretary of state, Alexander J. Dallas, and Randolph as influential Republican leaders in Pennsylvania. Fauchet referred to a conversation with Randolph, recorded in dispatch No. 3, dated 3 June 1794, about the administration’s policies toward the protests against the excise tax in western Pennsylvania. Based on comments he attributed to Randolph, Fauchet inferred that GW’s administration had “hastened the local eruption, to make an advantageous diversion, & to lay the more genl storm wch it saw was gathering” (GW’s notes on Fauchet dispatch, DLC:GW ). Fauchet also mentioned his dispatch No. 6, written on 5 Sept. 1794, which contained details of Randolph’s visit to Fauchet shortly before GW issued his proclamation of 7 Aug. 1794 to quell the insurrection. According to the French minister, Randolph during that visit had endeavored to obtain money to influence GW’s policy in favor of France.

Pickering and Wolcott consulted U.S. Attorney Gneral William Bradford on 29 July, and the three men agreed to request GW’s return to Philadelphia. For various accounts of dispatch No. 10, see Wolcott to John Marchall, 9 June 1806, CtHi : Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Papers Hamilton Papers, description begins Harold C. Syrett et al., eds. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton . 27 vols. New York, 1961–87. description ends 18:527–29 Pickering and Upham, Life of Pickering, description begins Octavius Pickering and Charles W. Upham. The Life of Timothy Pickering . 4 vols. Boston, 1867–73. description ends 3:209–17 Reardon, Edmund Randolph, description begins John J. Reardon. Edmund Randolph: A Biography . New York, 1974. description ends 367–80 Irving Brant, “Edmund Randolph Not Guilty!,” WMQ, description begins The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History . Williamsburg, Va. description ends 3d. ser., 7 (1950): 182–83 and Mary K. Bonsteel Tachau, “George Washington and the Reputation of Edmund Randolph,” Journal of American History, 73 (1986): 24–26.

4 . On this date at 10 P.M., Randolph penned the following letter to GW: “The secretaries of the treasury and war departments are now with me and we concur in thinking it expedient, that, if possible, you should return for a few days to the seat of government. Nothing, but the general crisis of public affairs, leads to this recommendation and it may be important, that you should do some act in consequence of the communications, expected from Mr Hammond, who will sail shortly” (ALS , DNA : RG 59, Miscellaneous Letters [third letter] DNA : RG 59, GW’s Correspondence with His Secretaries of State).


From John Adams to Timothy Pickering, 6 August 1822

Your favour of the 2d instant has prescribed a dismal plan, which I was never very well calculated to execute, but am now wholly incapable. I can write nothing which will not be suspected of personal vanity, local prejudice or Provincial & State partiality. However, as I hold myself responsible, at this age, to one only tribunal in the Universe, I will give you a few hints at all hazards.

As Mr: Hancock was sick and confined Mr Bowdoin was chosen at the head of the Massachusetts delegation to Congress. His relations thought his great fortune ought not to be hazarded. Cushing, too Adams’s and Paine, all destitute of fortune four poor Pilgrims, proceeded in one Coach were escorted through Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and New Jersey into Pennsylvania. We were met at Frankfort by Dr Rush, Mr Mifflin, Mr Bayard and several others of the most active Sons of Liberty, in Philadelphia, who desired a conference with us. We invited them to take Tea with us in a private apartment. They asked leave to give us some information and advice, which we thankfully granted. They represented to us that the friends of Government in Boston and in the Eastern States, in their correspondence with their friends in Pennsylvania and all the Southern States, had represented us as four desperate adventurers. Mr Cushing was a harmless kind of man, but poor and wholly dependent upon his popularity for his subsistence. Mr Samuel Adams was a very artful designing man, but desperately poor and wholly dependent on his popularity with the lowest vulgar for his living. John Adams and Mr Paine were two young Lawyers of no great talents reputation or weight, who had no other means of raising themselves into consequence but by courting popularity. We were all suspected of having Independence in view. Now, said they, you must not utter the word Independence, nor give the least hint or insinuation of the idea, neither in Congress or any private conversation if you do you are undone for the idea of Independence is as unpopular in Pennsylvania and in all the middle and Southern States as the Stamp Act itself. No Man dares to speak of it. Moreover, you are the Representatives of the suffering State. Boston and Massachusetts are under a rod of Iron. British fleets and Armies are tyranizing over you you yourselves are personally obnoxious to them and all the friends of government.

You have been long persecuted by them all:—Your feelings have been hurt your passions excited you are thought to be too warm, too zealous, too sanguine, you must be therefore very cautious. You must not come forward with any bold measures you must not pretend to take the lead. You know Virginia is the most populous State in the Union. They are very proud of their antient Dominion, as they call it they think they have a right to take the lead, and the Southern States and middle States too, are too much disposed to yield it to them. This was plain dealing, Mr Pickering, and I must confess, that there appeared so much wisdom and good sense in it, that it made a deep impression on my mind, and it had an equal effect on all my Colleagues. This conversation and the principles facts and motives suggested in it, have given a colour complection and character to the whole policy of the United States, from that day to this. Without it, Mr: Washington would never have commanded our armies, nor Mr: Jefferson have been the Author of the declaration of Independence, nor Mr: Richard Henry Lee the mover of it nor Mr: Chase the mover of foreign connections.

If I have ever had cause to repent of any part of this policy, that repentance ever has been and ever will be unavailing. I had forgot to say nor had Mr: Johnston ever have been the nominator of Washington for General.

Although this advice dwelt deeply on my mind, I had not in my nature prudence & caution enough always to observe it. When I found the members of Congress, Virginians & all, so perfectly convinced that they should be able to perswade or terrify Great Britain into a relinquishment of her policy, and a restoration of us to the State of 1763, I was astonished, and could not help muttering in Congress and sometimes out of doors, that they would find, that the proud domineering spirit of Great Britain their vain conceit of their own Omnipotence their total contempt of us, and the incessant representations of their friends and instruments in America, would drive us to extremities and finally conquer us transport us to England for trial, there to be hanged, drawn and quartered for Treason, or to the necessity of declaring Independence, however hazardous and uncertain such a desperate measure might be.

It soon became rumoured about the City that John Adams was for Independence the Quakers & Proprietary Gentlemen, took the alarm represented me as the worst of men, the true-blue Sons of Liberty pitied me all put me under a kind of Coventry. I was avoided like a man infected with the Leprosy. I walked the streets of Philadelphia in solitude, born down by the weight of care and unpopularity. But every ship for the ensuing year, brought us fresh proof of the truth of my prophesies and one after another became convinced of the necessity of Independence. I did not sink under my discouragements I had before experienced enough of the Wantonness of popularity in the trial of Preston and the Soldiers, in Boston.

You enquire why so young a man as Jefferson was placed at the head of the Committee for preparing a declaration of Independence? I answer, it was the Frankfort advice, to place Virginia at the head of everything. Mr: Richard Henry Lee, might be gone to Virginia, to his sick family, for aught I know, but that was not the reason of Mr: Jefferson’s appointment. There were three Committees appointed at the same time. One for the declaration of Independence another for preparing Articles of Confederation and another for preparing a Treaty to be proposed to France. Mr Lee was chosen for the Committee of confederation, and it was not thought convenient that the same person should be upon both. Mr Jefferson came into Congress in June 1775. and brought with him a reputation for literature, science, and a happy talent at composition. Writings of his were handed about remarkable for the peculiar felicity of expression. Though a silent member in Congress, he was so prompt, frank, explicit and decisive upon Committees, not even Saml Adams was more so, that he soon seized upon my heart, and upon this occasion I gave him my vote and did all in my power to procure the votes of others. I think he had one more vote than any other, and that placed him at the head of the Committee. I had the next highest number and that placed me the second. The Committee met, discussed the subject, and then appointed Mr: Jefferson & me to make the draught I suppose, because we were the two highest on the list. The Sub-Committee met Jefferson proposed to me to make the draught. I said I will not You shall do it. Oh No! Why will you not? You ought to do it. I will not. Why? Reasons enough. What can be your reasons? Reason 1st. You are a Virginian, and Virginia ought to appear at the head of this business. Reason 2d. I am obnoxious, suspected and unpopular You are very much otherwise. Reason 3d: You can write ten times better than I can. “Well,” said Jefferson, “if you are decided I will do as well as I can.” Very well, when you have drawn it up we will have a meeting. A meeting we accordingly had and conn’d the paper over. I was delighted with its high tone, and the flights of Oratory with which it abounded, especially that concerning Negro Slavery, which though I knew his Southern Bretheren would never suffer to pass in Congress, I certainly never would oppose. There were other expressions, which I would not have inserted if I had drawn it up particularly that which called the King a Tyrant. I thought this too personal, for I never believed George to be a tyrant in disposition and in nature I always believed him to be deceived by his Courtiers on both sides the Atlantic, and in his Official capacity only, Cruel.

I thought the expression too passionate and too much like scolding for so grave and solemn a document but as Franklin and Sherman were to inspect it afterwards, I thought it would not become me to strike it out. I consented to report it and do not now remember that I made or suggested a single alteration. We reported it to the Committee of Five. It was read and I do not remember that Franklin or Sherman criticized any thing. We were all in haste Congress was impatient and the Instrument was reported, as I believe in Jefferson’s hand writing as he first drew it. Congress cut off about a quarter part of it, as I expected they would, but they obliterated some of the best of it and left all that was exceptionable, if any thing in it was. I have long wondered that the Original draft has not been published. I suppose the reason is the vehement Phillipic against Negro Slavery. As you justly observe, there is not an idea in it, but what had been hackney’d in Congress for two years before. The substance of it is contained in the declaration of rights and the violation of those rights, in the Journals of Congress in 1774. Indeed, the essence of it is contained in a pamphlet, voted and printed by the Town of Boston before the first Congress met composed by James Otis, as I suppose—in one of his lucid intervals, and pruned and polished by Saml: Adams.

If there is any other Question, that you wish to ask me, as long as my memory lasts, and I can procure an Amanuensis as good as the present, to answer you will give great pleasure to him, who is your Friend & Humble Servt:


Pickering, Timothy - History


Sinking on July 13, 1943 the " S.S. Timothy Pickering " lost " 158 " men !

The steam tanker " S.S. Timothy Pickering " (Hull Number 246) was built in 1942 by the Permanente Metals Corporation, Richmond, California. The ship was named after Timothy Pickering, third United States Secretary of State.

On July 13, 1943 the " S.S. Timothy Pickering ", while anchored offshore at Avola, Sicily, was hit by an Italian Ju 87 Stuka which caused the ship to explode and quickly sink with the loss of " 127 " British servicemen, " 22 " Merchant seamen, and " 9 " U.S. Navy Armed Guards. Only one British serviceman survived the explosion.

The names of the " 127 " British servicemen is currently unknown !

If anyone can help with the names of these British Servicemen
please let me know at " [email protected] " so they can be listed here!

Found for the below listing are however:

All " 22 " of the Merchant Marines lost !

" AND "

" 6 " of the " 9 " Navy Armed Guards lost !

If anyone knows who the other " 3 " Armed Guards were
please also let me know at " [email protected] " and they will be listed here!


The following below list was created in the memory of those who "Gave Their All" on the " S.S. Timothy Pickering ". There are personal "online memorials" for each of these honored men that were created for them by using the "Find A Grave" website. You will see a blue " Yes " behind their names and by clicking on the " Yes " you will see a personal memorial that has been created for them by myself or someone else.

" For his great photos and research work in the Epinal American Cemetery, France "
" Anne Cady "

" For her great help locating burials and record updates For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! "
" Dan Phelan "

" For his great help locating burials, record updates, and taking photos for Maryland and helping in researching the Merchant Marines for Maryland ! "
" Dennis Healy "

" For all his photo's in Maryland "
" Frogman "

" For his great photos in multiple American Cemeteries in France "
" Janice Hollandsworth "

" For her great help locating burials and record updates For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide "
" John C. Anderson "

" For his valuable help with documenting soldiers in Arlington National Cemetery "
" John Dowdy "

" For his great help with the Army Air Force, locating burials and flight crew reports For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! "
" Patricia O'Neal "

" For her valuable help with documenting and creating records For Merchant Marines Nationwide ! "
" Shaneo "

" For his great help locating burials and record updates For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! "
" Tim Cook "

" For his great help with the Army Air Force, locating burials, taking photos, and flight crew reports For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! " -->

Key to Abbreviations and Notes

MM = Awarded the " Mariner's Medal "

( Awarded to the Merchant Mariners for being wounded, Missing or Killed In Action )

MM * = Awarded the " Combat Bar "

( Awarded to those who are under combat conditions )

MM ** = Awarded the " Combat Star "

( Awarded to those who are forced to abandon ship when attacked or damaged )

MM-DSM = Awarded the Mariner's " Distinguished Service Medal "

( Awarded for " Heroism Beyond the Call of Duty " )

PH = Awarded the "Purple Heart"

( Awarded to soldiers & sailors for being Wounded and/or Killed in action )

Other Medals = Such as Good Conduct Medals, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medals, American Defense Service Medals, etc. " Are Not " included in this listing.

= Picture of person shown on online memorial

= Picture of tombstone shown on online memorial

Cenotaph = A memorial stone only

Interred somewhere unknown.

" Special Thanks " go to the " Remarkable Website " :

Please visit this great site for more by clicking above !

Quick Link by first letter of Last Name for the S.S. Timothy Pickering

( Those letters shown below in " Maroon " had no known crew members on this ship )


Timothy Pickering

Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745January 29, 1829) was a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.

Pickering had previously served in the Massachusetts militia and Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is often remembered for his Anglophile attitudes, and pushed for pro-British policies during his political career. Pickering famously describing the country as “The World’s last hope – Britain’s Fast-anchored Isle” during the Napoleonic Wars. He later became involved with the Hartford Convention, and along with many other Federalists opposed the War of 1812.

Pickering was born in Salem, Massachusetts to Deacon Timothy and Mary Wingate Pickering. He was one of nine children and the younger brother of John Pickering (not to be confused with the New Hampshire judge) who would eventually serve as Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He attended grammar school in Salem and graduated from Harvard University in 1763. Salem minister William Bentley noted on Pickering: “From his youth his townsmen proclaim him assuming, turbulent, & headstrong.”

After graduating from Harvard, Pickering returned to Salem where he began working for John Higginson, the town clerk and Essex County register of deeds. Pickering was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1768 and, in 1774, he succeeded Higginson as register of deeds. Soon after, he was elected to represent Salem in the Massachusetts General Court and served as a justice in the Essex County Court of Common Pleas. On April 8, 1776, he married Rebecca White of Salem.

In January 1766, Pickering was commissioned a lieutenant in the Essex County militia. He was promoted to captain three years later. In 1769, he published his ideas on drilling soldiers in the Essex Gazette. These were published in 1775 as “An Easy Plan for a Militia.” The manual was used as the Continental Army drill book until replaced by Baron von Steuben’s Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States

==American Revolutionary War==

In February 1775 men under Pickering’s command were involved in a bloodless confrontration with a detachment of British regulars under Alexander Leslie who had been despatched from Boston to search Salem for contraband artillery. Two months later, Pickering’s troops marched to take part in the Battle of Lexington and Concord but arrived too late to play a major role. They then became part of the New England army assembling outside Boston to lay siege to the city.

In December 1776, he led a well-drilled regiment of the Essex County militia to New York, where General George Washington took notice and offered Pickering the position of adjutant general of the Continental Army in 1777. In this capacity he oversaw the building of the Great chain which was forged at the Stirling Iron Works. The chain blocked the Royal Navy from proceeding up the Hudson River past West Point and protected that important fort from attack for the duration of the conflict. He was widely praised for his work in supplying the troops during the remainder of the conflict. In August 1780, the Continental Congress elected Pickering Quartermaster General.

After the end of the American Revolution, Pickering made several failed attempts at financial success. In 1783, he embarked on a mercantile partnership with Samuel Hodgdon that failed two years later. In 1786, he moved to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania where he assumed a series of offices at the head of Luzerne County. When he attempted to evict Connecticut settlers living in the area, Pickering was captured and held hostage for nineteen days. In 1787, he was part of the Pennsylvania convention held to consider ratification of the United States Constitution.

After the first of Pickering’s two successful attempts to make money speculating in Pennsylvania frontier land, now-President Washington appointed him commissioner to the Iroquois Indians and Pickering represented the United States in the negotiation of the Treaty of Canandaigua with the Iroquois in 1794.

Washington brought Pickering into the government, as Postmaster General in 1791. He remained in Washington’s cabinet and then that of John Adams for nine years, serving as postmaster general until 1795, Secretary of War for a brief time in 1795, then Secretary of State from 1795 to 1800. As Secretary of State he is most remembered for his strong Federalist Party attachments to British causes, even willingness to wage war with France in service of these causes during the Adams administration. In 1799 Pickering hired Joseph Dennie as his private secretary.

After a quarrel with President John Adams over Adams’s plan to make peace with France, Pickering was dismissed from office in May 1800. In 1802, Pickering and a band of Federalists, agitated at the lack of support for Federalists, attempted to gain support for the secession of New England from the Jeffersonian United States. The irony of a Federalist moving against the national government was not lost among his dissenters. He was named to the United States Senate as a senator from Massachusetts in 1803 as a member of the Federalist Party. Pickering opposed the American seizure and annexation of Spanish West Florida in 1810, which he believed was both unconstitutional and an act of aggression against a friendly power. He lost his Senate seat in 1811, and was elected to the United States House of Representatives in the 1812 election, where he remained until 1817. His congressional career is best remembered for his leadership of the New England secession movement (see Essex Junto and the Hartford Convention).

After Pickering was denied re-election in 1816, he retired to Salem, where he lived as a farmer until his death in 1829, aged 83. In 1942, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Timothy Pickering was launched. She was lost off Sicily in 1945. Until the 1990s, Pickering’s ancestral home, the circa 1651 Pickering House, was the oldest house in the United States to be owned by the same family continually.


Watch the video: Lessons from the Life of Timothy