Statue Group of Persephone-Isis and Pluto-Serapis with Cerberus

Statue Group of Persephone-Isis and Pluto-Serapis with Cerberus

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Crete's Minoan, Mycenaen, and Roman treasures

I noticed this morning that Carole Raddato retweeted a link to her excellent article, "Exploring Western Crete's Archaeological Treasures" that she originally wrote back in May 2019. I must have missed the original post so read it for the first time today and found it fascinating and beautifully illustrated. So I am featuring an abstract of it as today's "Antiquity Alive" presentation:

"The Minoan civilization emerged on the island of Crete in the Early Bronze Age at the end of the third and beginning of the second millennium BCE. It flourished from c. 2000 BCE until c. 1500 BCE with the establishment of centres, called "palaces" by modern archaeologists, that concentrated political and economic powers, as well as artistic activities. Of particular significance was the religious role played by the palaces in the cult of the Mother Goddess."

"The British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans discovered the first of these palaces in Knossos in 1900 CE and named the people who built them after the legendary King Minos. It was King Monos who, according to tradition, ordered the construction of a labyrinth in Knossos to hold the Minotaur, the mythical half-man, half-bull creature. The Minoan culture spread throughout the entire eastern Mediterranean world and its stunning art and architecture deeply influenced the Mycenaean Civilization (1600 - 1100 BCE) that would succeed it. After the downfall of the Mycenaeans, Crete was ruled by various ancient Greek city-states until the Romans conquered the island in 69 BCE and made Gortyn their capital."

"According to tradition, Gortyn is where Zeus, in the guise of a bull, brought the princess Europa from her home in Phoenicia." (Following this affair three children were born, Minos, Rhadamanthys and Sarpedon, who became the kings of the three Minoan Palaces in Crete.)

"Homer mentions Gortyn in the Iliad as “having walls” and in the Odyssey as the place where Menelaus and his fleet of ships, returning home from the Trojan War, were blown off course to the Cretan coastline."

"Under Roman rule, Crete re-emerged as a major cultural centre and became the joint province of Crete and Cyrenaica and a centre of early Christianity. When the Roman Empire split into two, Crete was made part of the Eastern empire. It continued to prosper during the Byzantine era until it faced repeated Arab raids and, ultimately, full conquest in the 820s CE." - Carole Raddato

In 1884, the Gortyn Law Code was discovered on the site of a structure built by the Roman emperor Trajan, the Odeon, which for the second time, reused stones from an inscription-bearing wall that also had been incorporated into the foundation of an earlier Hellenistic structure. It is both the oldest and most complete known example of a code of ancient Greek law. Although portions of the inscriptions have been placed in museums such as the Louvre in Paris, a modern structure at the site of the mostly ruined Odeon now houses many of the stones bearing the famous law code.

The Concepts of Heaven and Hell in Ancient Greece

The Hades Amphora, depicting Hades (right) and Persephone (left). Painted by “The Oionokles Painter.” Detail from an Attic red-figure amphora, ca. 470 BC. Louvre Museum. Credit: User:Jastrow/CC BY 3.0

The Ancient Greece concepts for Heaven and Hell are of course different in many ways than those propounded by Christianity, but in other aspects they closely mirror the horror and the ecstasies of these places that we associate them with today.

Like the Christian concept of Hell, the Greek underworld had a ruler who was closely associated with its domain, the eponymous god Hades.

But strangely, the Greek concept of Heaven did not have a god or goddess who personified its rarefied realms the ruler of Elysium varies from author to author in Greek history. Pindar and Hesiod name Cronus as the ruler, while the poet Homer in his Odyssey describes fair-haired Rhadamanthus as the one who dwelt there.

A depiction of Hades abducting Persephone, from the fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c. 340 BC. Credit: Unknown/Public Domain

Elysium, or the Elysian Fields (Ancient Greek: Ἠλύσιον πεδίον, Ēlýsion pedíon) is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was a tenet of some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults.

It was initially separated from the Greek underworld and realm of Hades, and only mortals related to the gods and other heroes could be admitted here.

Later, in a version that was more closely akin to the later beliefs of Christianity, the conception of who could enter the heavenly realm was expanded to include those chosen by the gods, as well as the righteous and those who were heroic.

They would remain luxuriating in the Elysian Fields after death, to live a blessed and happy life, and indulge in whatever employment they had enjoyed while they were living, according to the belief system of Ancient Greece.

Hades and his three-headed dog, Cerberus. Detail of Pluto/Serapis, statue group of Persephone (as Isis) and Pluto (as Serapis), from the Sanctuary of the Egyptian Gods at Gortyna, mid-2nd century AD, Heraklion Archaeological Museum. Credit: CC BY-SA 2.0

Hades was Ancient Greece God of the Dead, King of the Underworld

Hades (ᾍδης Hádēs Ἅιδης Háidēs), in ancient Greek mythology, is the god of the dead and the king of the underworld, with which his name became synonymous.

Hades was the grandson of Uranus, the god of the heavens, and Gaia, the goddess of the Earth. He was the eldest son of Cronus and Rhea, although he was the last son regurgitated by his father. He and his brothers, Zeus and Poseidon, defeated their father’s generation of gods, the Titans, and claimed rulership over the cosmos.

Perhaps from fear of even pronouncing his name, around the 5th century BC, the Greeks started referring to Hades as Plouton (Πλούτων, Ploútōn), with a root meaning “wealthy,” considering that from the abode below (i.e., the soil) come riches (e.g., fertile crops, metals and so on).

People would sometimes refer to him as “Zeus katachthonios” (Ζεὺς καταχθόνιος), meaning “the Zeus of the Underworld,” by those who felt they had to avoid saying his actual name, since he had complete control over the Underworld.

Hades, as the god of the dead, was a fearsome figure to those still living in no hurry to meet him, they were reluctant to swear oaths in his name, and averted their faces when sacrificing to him. Since to many, simply to say the word “Hades” was frightening, euphemisms were pressed into use.

In addition, he was called Clymenus (“notorious”), Polydegmon (“who receives many”), and perhaps Eubuleus (“good counsel” or “well-intentioned”) all of them euphemisms for a name that was unsafe to pronounce, which evolved into epithets.

Since precious minerals come from under the earth (i.e., the “underworld” ruled by Hades), he was considered to have control of these as well Sophocles explained the notion of referring to Hades as Plouton with these words: “the gloomy Hades enriches himself with our sighs and our tears.”

He spent most of the time in his dark realm. Formidable in battle, he proved his ferocity in the famous Titanomachy, the battle of the Olympians versus the Titans, which established the rule of Zeus, according to the mythology of Ancient Greece.

Feared and loathed, Hades embodied the inexorable finality of death: “Why do we loathe Hades more than any god, if not because he is so adamantine and unyielding?” This rhetorical question is Agamemnon’s in Homer’s Iliad.

As his birthright, Hades received the underworld, Zeus the sky, and Poseidon the sea but the earth, which had long been the province of Gaia, was open to all three gods concurrently for any actions they wished to carry out.

Hades was often portrayed with his three-headed guard dog Cerberus.

Sacrifices to Hades involved black animals, touching heads to ground

Hades was not, however, an evil god, for although he was stern, cruel, and unpitying, he was viewed as a just one. Hades ruled the Underworld and was therefore most often associated with death and feared by men, but he was not Death itself — that was Thanatos, the son of Nyx and Erebus, who was the actual personification of death in Ancient Greece.

When the Greeks propitiated Hades, they banged their hands on the ground to be sure he would hear them. Black animals, such as sheep, were sacrificed to him. The blood from all chthonic sacrifices, including those to propitiate Hades, dripped into a pit or cleft in the ground. The person who offered the sacrifice had to avert his face.

The Etruscan god Aita and the Roman gods Dis Pater and Orcus were eventually taken as equivalent to Hades and merged into Pluto, a Latinization of Plouton (Greek: Πλούτων, Ploútōn), which was itself a more euphemistic title often given to Hades.

Plouton became the Roman god who both rules the underworld and distributed riches from below. This deity was a mixture of the Greek god Hades and the Eleusinian icon Ploutos.

The origin of Hades’ name is uncertain, but has generally been seen as meaning “the unseen one” since the time of Ancient Greece. An extensive section of Plato’s dialogue Cratylus is devoted to the etymology of the god’s name, in which Socrates is arguing for a folk etymology, not from “unseen” but from “his knowledge (eidenai) of all noble things”.

Other epithets of Hades include Agesander (Ἀγήσανδρος) and Agesilaos (Ἀγεσίλαος), both from ágō (ἄγω, “lead”, “carry” or “fetch”) and anḗr (ἀνήρ, “man”) or laos (λαός, “men” or “people”), describing Hades as the god who carries people away.

The Origin and Life of Hades in Ancient Greece mythology

He had three older sisters — Hestia, Demeter, and Hera, as well as a younger brother, Poseidon, the god of the sea — all of whom had been swallowed whole by their father as soon as they were born. Zeus was the youngest child and through the machinations of their mother, Rhea, he was the only one that had escaped this fate.

Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war.

The war lasted for ten years and ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad (Book XV, ln.187–93), Hades and his two brothers, Poseidon and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule.

Zeus received the sky, Poseidon received the seas, and Hades received the underworld, the unseen realm to which the souls of the dead go upon leaving the world. Some Ancient Greece myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his inheritance, but having no choice, he moved to his new realm.

Hades and his consort, Persephone

Hades obtained his wife and queen, Persephone, in the usual, violent way that occurred throughout Greek mythology — through abduction, at the behest of Zeus. This myth is the most important one in which Hades takes part.

It also connected the Eleusinian Mysteries with the Olympian pantheon, particularly as represented in the “Homeric Hymn to Demeter,” which is the oldest story of the abduction, which most likely dates back to the beginning of the 6th century BC. Helios, the god of the sun, told the grieving Demeter that Hades was worthy as a consort for her daughter Persephone:

“Aidoneus, the Ruler of Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless gods for your child, being your own brother and born of the same stock: also, for honor, he has that third share which he received when division was made at the first, and is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells.”

Hades as a being, and a place, in the world of Ancient Greece differs in a meaningful way with the concept of Hell and Satan, as Christianity traditionally understands these concepts.

Hades himself was often portrayed as passive, rather than evil his role was often maintaining a relative balance between the worlds. He was depicted usually as just cold and stern, and he held all of his subjects equally accountable to his laws.

Interestingly, any other individual aspects of his personality have not been noted in the literature — since apparently Greeks refrained from giving him much thought to avoid attracting his attention.

Hell — Underworld “Full of Guests” who could not leave

The House of Hades was described as full of “guests,” though he himself rarely left the Underworld. He cared little about what happened in the world above, since his primary attention appeared to be ensuring that none of his subjects ever left his domain.

Red Krater with Scene from the Underworld, by a follower of the “Baltimore Painter,” Hermitage Museum. Credit: Wmpearl /CC0

He strictly forbade his subjects to leave his domain and would become enraged when anyone tried to leave, or if someone tried to steal souls from his realm. His wrath was equally terrible for anyone who tried to cheat death or otherwise crossed him, as Sisyphus and Pirithous found out to their sorrow.

While usually indifferent to his subjects, Hades was very focused on the punishment of these two people particularly Pirithous, since he had entered the underworld in an attempt to steal Persephone for himself, and consequently was forced onto the “Chair of Forgetfulness.”

Hades was only depicted outside of the Underworld once in the mythology of Ancient Greece, and even that is believed to have been an instance where he had just left the gates of the Underworld. Heracles shot Hades with an arrow as the latter was attempting to defend the city of Pylos.

After he was shot, however, he traveled to Mount Olympus to heal. Besides Heracles, the only other living people who ventured to the Underworld were also heroes: Odysseus, Aeneas (accompanied by the Sibyl), Orpheus, to whom Hades showed uncharacteristic mercy at Persephone’s urging, who was moved by Orpheus’ music.

In addition, Theseus appeared there with Pirithous, and, in a late romance, Psyche did as well. None of them were pleased with what they witnessed in the realm of the dead. In particular, the Greek war hero Achilles, whom Odysseus conjured with a blood libation, said in the Odyssey:

“O shining Odysseus, never try to console me for dying.
I would rather follow the plow as thrall to another
Man, one with no land allotted to him and not much to live on,
Than be a king over all the perished dead.”

Hades is shown with his consort, Persephone. Tondo of an Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 440–430 BC Credit: User:Jastrow/CC BY 2.5

According to the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Persephone did not submit to Hades willingly, but was abducted by him while picking flowers in the fields of Nysa. Her father, Zeus, had previously given Persephone to Hades to be his wife, as is stated in the first lines of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter.

In protest of his act of violence, Demeter cast a curse on the land and there was a great famine in Ancient Greece despite the gods requesting that she lift it, lest mankind perish and cause the gods to be deprived of their receiving gifts and sacrifices, Demeter declared that the earth would remain barren until she saw her beloved daughter again.

Zeus then sends for his son, Hermes, and instructs him to go down to the Underworld in hopes that he may be able to convince Hades to allow Persephone to return to Earth, so that Demeter might see her daughter once again and cause the famine to stop.

Hermes relays Zeus’ message, and Hades complies, saying,

“Go now, Persephone, to your dark-robed mother, go, and feel kindly in your heart towards me: be not so exceedingly cast down for I shall be no unfitting husband for you among the deathless gods, that am own brother to father Zeus. And while you are here, you shall rule all that lives and moves and shall have the greatest rights among the deathless gods: those who defraud you and do not appease your power with offerings, reverently performing rites and paying fit gifts, shall be punished for evermore.”

Zeus, however, had previously proposed a compromise, to which all parties had agreed: of the year, Persephone would spend one third with her husband. It is during this time, when Persephone is down in the Underworld with her husband, that winter falls upon the earth, “an aspect of sadness and mourning.”

Hades’ Abduction of Persephone. 18th Century. Oil on wood with gilt background. Credit: Property of Missing Link Antiques. Public Domain

The Dichotomy of Hades and Dionysus in Ancient Greece

The philosopher Heraclitus, unifying opposites, declared that Hades and Dionysus, the very essence of indestructible life (zoë), were the same god. Among other evidence, Karl Kerényi notes in “Eleusis: Archetypal Image of Mother and Daughter” that the Homeric Hymn To Demeter, votive marble images and epithets all link Hades to being Dionysus.

He also notes that the grieving goddess Demeter refused to drink wine, as she states that it would be against themis for her to drink wine, which is the gift of Dionysus, after Persephone’s abduction, because of this association indicating that Hades may in fact have been a “cover name” for the underworld Dionysus.

He suggests that this dual identity may have been familiar to those who came into contact with the Mysteries. Dionysus also shared several epithets with Hades such as Chthonios (“the subterranean”), Eubouleus (“Good Counselor”), and Euclius (“glorious” or “renowned”).

Evidence for a cult connection is quite extensive, particularly in southern Italy, especially when considering the death symbolism included in Dionysian worship statues of Dionysus found in the Ploutonion at Eleusis gives further evidence as the statue bears a striking resemblance to the statue of Eubouleus, also known as the youthful depiction of the Lord of the Underworld.

Both Hades and Dionysus were associated with a divine tripartite deity with Zeus. The Orphics in particular believed that Zeus and Hades were the same deity and portrayed them as such.

Zeus was portrayed as having an incarnation in the underworld identifying him as literally being Hades and leading to Zeus and Hades essentially being two representations and different facets of the same god and extended divine power — this is strikingly similar to Satan in Christian theology, who was once an angel himself before being sent to Hell to rule there.

This nature and aspect of Hades and Zeus displayed in the Orphic stories is the explanation for why both Hades and Zeus are considered to be the father of Melinoë and Zagreus. The role of unifying Hades, Zeus and Dionysus as a single tripartite god was used to represent the birth, death and resurrection of a deity and to unify the ‘shining’ realm of Zeus and the dark realm of Hades that lay beneath the Earth.

Artistic representations of Hades or Hell very few and far between

Hades was depicted so infrequently in artwork, as well as mythology, because the Greeks were so afraid of him. His artistic representations are generally found in Archaic pottery.

He was later presented in the classical arts in the depictions of the Rape of Persephone. Within these illustrations, Hades was often young, yet he was also shown as varying ages in other works.

Due to this lack of depictions, there weren’t very strict guidelines when representing the deity. On pottery, he has a dark beard and is presented as a stately figure on an “ebony throne.” His attributes in art include a scepter, cornucopia, rooster, and a key, which both represented his control over the underworld and acted as a reminder that the gates of the Underworld were always locked so that souls could not leave.

Even if the doors were open, Cerberus, the three-headed guard dog of the Underworld, ensured that while all souls were allowed to enter into The Underworld freely, none could ever escape. The dog is often portrayed next to the god as a means of easy identification, since no other deity relates to it so directly.

Sometimes, artists painted Hades as looking away from the other gods, as he was disliked by them as well as humans.

As Plouton, he was regarded in a more positive light. He holds a cornucopia, representing the gifts he bestows upon people as well as fertility, to which he becomes connected.

An Ancient Greek funeral vase showing a scene from the afterlife, believed to represent Elysium. On the face a young woman and a youth pick apples from a tree. This unique allegoric theme apparently alludes to the afterlife in the Elysian Fields. Credit: Jerónimo Roure Pérez/CC BY-SA 4.0

Realm of Hades included Elysium, Asphodel Meadows and Tartarus

There were several sections of the realm of Hades according to the mythology of Ancient Greece, including Elysium, the Asphodel Meadows, and Tartarus. The mythographer Apollodorus, describes Tartarus as “a gloomy place in Hades as far distant from Earth, as Earth is distant from the sky.” This realm, of course, most closely resembles what may Christians may conceive of as Hell.

For Hellenes, the deceased entered the underworld by crossing the Styx, ferried across by Charon, who charged an obolus, a small coin for passage placed in the mouth of the deceased by pious relatives.

Greeks offered propitiatory libations to prevent the deceased from returning to the upper world to “haunt” those who had not given them a proper burial. The far side of the river was guarded by Cerberus, the three-headed dog defeated by Heracles. Passing beyond Cerberus, the shades of the departed entered the land of the dead to be judged.

The Styx formed the boundary between the upper and lower worlds.

The first region of Hades comprised the Fields of Asphodel, described in the Odyssey, where the shades of heroes wander despondently among lesser spirits, who twitter around them like bats. Only libations of blood offered to them in the world of the living can reawaken in them for a time the sensations of humanity.

Beyond lay Erebus, which could be taken for a euphonym of Hades, whose own name was dread. There were two pools, that of Lethe, where the common souls flocked to erase all memory, and the pool of Mnemosyne (“memory”), where the initiates of the Mysteries drank instead.

In the forecourt of the palace of Hades and Persephone sit the three judges of the Underworld: Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus. There at the trivium sacred to Hecate, where three roads meet, souls are judged, returned to the Fields of Asphodel if they are neither virtuous nor evil, sent by the road to Tartarus if they are impious or evil, or sent to Elysium (Islands of the Blessed) with the “blameless” heroes.

Elysium, or “Serenity,” by Henri Martin, based on the Classical understanding of heaven. Credit: Public Domain

Elysium was Heaven in Ancient Greece

The Elysian Fields were, according to Homer, located on the western edge of the Earth by the stream of Okeanos. In the time of the Greek poet Hesiod, Elysium would also be known as the “Fortunate Isles”, or the “Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed”, located in the western ocean at the end of the earth.

The Isles of the Blessed would be reduced to a single island by the Theban poet Pindar, describing it as having shady parks, with residents indulging in athletic and musical pastimes.

In Homer’s Odyssey, Elysium is described as a “paradise”:

“(T)o the Elysian plain…where life is easiest for men. No snow is there, nor heavy storm, nor ever rain, but ever does Ocean send up blasts of the shrill-blowing West Wind that they may give cooling to men.”

According to Eustathius of Thessalonica, the word “Elysium” (Ἠλύσιον) derives from ἀλυουσας (ἀλύω, to be deeply stirred from joy) or from ἀλύτως, synonymous of ἀφθάρτως (ἄφθαρτος, incorruptible),referring to souls’ lives in this place.

The Greek poet Hesiod refers to the “Isles of the Blest” in his didactic poem “Works and Days”:

“And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep-swirling Ocean, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Cronos rules over them.”

Pindar’s “Odes” describes the reward waiting for those living a righteous life:

“The good receive a life free from toil, not scraping with the strength of their arms the earth, nor the water of the sea, for the sake of a poor sustenance. But in the presence of the honored gods, those who gladly kept their oaths enjoy a life without tears, while the others undergo a toil that is unbearable to look at.

“Those who have persevered three times, on either side, to keep their souls free from all wrongdoing, follow Zeus’ road to the end, to the tower of Cronus, where ocean breezes blow around the island of the blessed, and flowers of gold are blazing, some from splendid trees on land, while water nurtures others. With these wreaths and garlands of flowers they entwine their hands according to the righteous counsels of Rhadamanthys, whom the great father, the husband of Rhea whose throne is above all others, keeps close beside him as his partner.”

In the Greek historian Plutarch’s “Life of Sertorius,” Elysium is described as:

“(T)he Islands of the Blest enjoy moderate rains at long intervals, and winds which for the most part are soft and precipitate dews, so that the islands not only have a rich soil which is excellent for plowing and planting, but also produce a natural fruit that is plentiful and wholesome enough to feed, without toil or trouble, a leisured folk.

“Moreover, an air that is salubrious, owing to the climate and the moderate changes in the seasons, prevails on the islands…Therefore a firm belief has made its way, even to the Barbarians, that here is the Elysian Field and the abode of the blessed, of which Homer sang.”

Concept of Elysium / Heaven Continued Throughout History

Elysium as a pagan expression for paradise would eventually pass into usage by early Christian writers.

In Dante’s epic “The Divine Comedy,” Elysium is mentioned as the abode of the blessed in the lower world in the meeting of Aeneas with the shade of Anchises in the Elysian Fields.

“With such affection did Anchises’ shade reach out, if our greatest muse is owed belief, when in Elysium he knew his son.”

In the Renaissance, the heroic population of the Elysian Fields tended to outshine its formerly dreary pagan reputation the Elysian Fields borrowed some of the bright allure of paradise.

In Paris, the Champs-Élysées retains its name, the Elysian Fields, which was first applied in the late 16th century to a formerly rural outlier beyond the formal parterre gardens behind the royal French palace of the Tuileries. The nearby Élysée Palace houses the President of the French Republic, for which reason “l’Élysée” frequently appears as a metonym for the French presidency itself.

In Shakespeare’s “Twelfth Night,” when Viola says “My brother, he is in Elysium” she and Elizabethan audiences understand this as Paradise. In Mozart’s “The Magic Flute,” Papageno compares being in Elysium to winning his ideal woman: “Des Lebens als Weiser mich freun, Und wie im Elysium sein.” (“Enjoy life as a wise man, And feel like I’m in Elysium.”)

Miguel de Cervantes’ epic hero Don Quixote describes Dulcinea del Toboso as “beauty superhuman, since all the impossible and fanciful attributes of beauty which the poets apply to their ladies are verified in her for her hairs are gold, her forehead Elysian fields.”

Concept of Heaven Strikingly Similar Throughout the Ages Hades and Hell Differ Markedly

Whereas the ancient Greeks viewed Hades as cold and an impersonal judge of souls, Hell as most people conceive of it today is the very embodiment of evil. Or perhaps that version of him and the place he ruled was nebulous and incomplete because they didn’t even dare to think of or write much about Hades, for fear of him.

Sometimes Elysium is imagined as a place where heroes are free to continue their interests which they pursued in their lives. Others suppose it is a location filled with feasting, sport, and song. However one views Heaven, it seems clear that the concept of it that has passed down through the ages from Ancient Greece bears a much greater resemblance to the Christian version that we have today than does the concept of Hell, or Hades.

Joy is the “daughter of Elysium” in Friedrich Schiller’s ode “To Joy” — the very hymn that embodies Europe itself as an anthem.

Shepherd Boy by Bertel Thorvaldsen (1768-1844) custom marble relief sculpture

Bertel Thorvaldsen sculpted his marble sculpture “Shepherd Boy” in 1822-1825. It is 58.25” tall (148 cm) and today resides at the Thorvaldsen Museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. It recalls a parallel between the famous ancient sculpture of the Sleeping Faun in Munich, and the mythological shepherd boy Ganymede. We carved this sculpture out of single block of white marble in a reduced size 18” tall (45.7 cm).

Tech News

Vasilliki Karagiorgos was born in Darwin, Australia and is known mononymously as Vassy. She is a Greek-Australian R&B singer-songwriter. Vassy, whose parents are both Greek immigrants, was discovered in 2003 after winning an Australian (Triple J) radio contest and quickly began to receive recognition in Australia for her vocal talent and style, heavily influenced by Billie Holiday. In late 2005, Vassy released her debut album My Affection.

Vassy is a singer/songwriter who’s written songs for other artists as well as hit television shows and film projects. Her music has been heard on several major network television episodes, motion pictures and video games such as Grey’s Anatomy (ABC), Ugly Betty (ABC), Windfall (NBC), Notes from the Underbelly (Warner Bros.), In The Motherhood (ABC), Drop Dead Diva on Lifetime, When in Rome (Disney Movie Trailer), Last Holiday (Paramount Pictures), Powder Blue (Blue Snow Productions), Chill Out to the Sounds of Vassy (Sprite Campaign), FIFA (EA Sports Video Game), The Sims (Video Game) and a recent Hilton Hotels ad campaign.

Vassy is currently working on a new album project between Los Angeles, New York and London. She is collaborating with top producers and remixers who include Richard Vission (U2, Lady GaGa, Radiohead, Weezer), Chico Bennett (Madonna, Hilary Duff), Camara Kambon (Mary J. Blige, Macy Gray, Dr. Dre, Eminem) and Track n Field (Nelly Furtado).

Her new single, “History” released in 2010 has already become a hit.

Vassy is also recognized for her philanthropy work with various charity groups in Australia. She was the Youth Ambassador for Australia Carers, an organization for young carers, people under the age of 26 who provide care in a family affected by illness, disability, mental health and/or drug or alcohol issues of one or more family members or friends.


Stunning Dior Fashion Show Held at Athens Panathenaic Stadium

Models walked the historic track of the Panathenaic Stadium for Dior. Credit: Screenshot from fashion show/

A jaw-dropping Dior fashion show was held in Athens at the Panathenaic Stadium on Thursday for the major fashion house’s “Cruise 2022” collection.

Setting the show at the world famous, historically significant, and most importantly decidedly Grecian “Kallimarmaro” stadium is clearly a nod to ancient Greece, which acts as a huge inspiration for Dior.

Dior show in Athens

At the helm of the show held in Athens was Maria Grazia Chiuri, Dior’s current creative director. Chiuri sees fashion through a feminist lens and in terms of the Dior “Cruise 2022” collection, she researched and subsequently channeled a lot of information about powerful ancient Greek women.

Chiuri’s inspiration explains why the setting of the show has been done in such an explicitly historical place, as well as the contents of the collection which are almost certainly Greek-inspired.

The creative director has chosen to implement Grecian dresses and draping in previous Dior shows, seemingly making Greece a theme in her work. In the “Cruise 2022” collection, the Dior designer chose to pair these traditional forms of dress with chunky and noticeable sneakers, evoking a powerful contrast which may elude to a sports or Olympic Games theme.

The show held in Athens featured traditional ancient Greece inspired clothing contrasted with athletic wear. Credit: Screenshot from fashion show/

“It gives this idea that they are not statues, but are active in the world,” says Chiuri of the gowns being pared with athletic wear.

“It’s really something absolutely contemporary: all the things that are under the dress are technical things that you can use also to run.”

“The peplos also is an element that allows the body to move freely, that evokes women in movement, and no one more than an athlete moves their body in a really active way,” Chiuri continued.

“So my idea was to culminate all these elements inside the show,” the creative director continued.

The feminist and ancient Greek sources of inspiration that Chiuri drew from when formulating this collection are evident throughout and create a powerful message, especially when set before such a stunning backdrop.

Dior and Greece: a lasting love story

Models walk in the impressive Kallimarmaro stadium. Credit: Screenshot from fashion show/

This is not the first time that Dior has sought to hold a fashion show in Greece. The show which was held on Thursday at Kallimarmaro actually succeeds a Dior show held in Athens in 1951.

The show, which presented the 1951 autumn/winter haute couture collection, saw models pose in front of the Caryatids, mirroring their grace and taking a cue from their impressive outerwear.

At the time of the Acropolis show, Dior was 46 years old. He had just established his own fashion line in Paris, reviving haute couture in the “City of Light,” which had suffered significant losses after World War II.

Fast forward to today, and Dior returned to Athens to host its most recent fashion show at the Panathenaic Stadium.

The stadium, where the first modern Olympic games were held in 1896, is a multi-purpose facility in the city’s center. It is the only stadium in the world built entirely of marble.

The show in its entirety, with a beautiful Greek setting, can be seen below.

Euro 2020: Netherlands Beats Austria 2-0 Move on to Round of 16

The Netherlands football team after today’s win against Austria. Photo: The Netherlands football team/Facebook

The Netherlands have defeated the Austrian men’s team in their Group C match at the 2020 Euro on Thursday, winning the Group and continuing on to the round of 16, known as the ‘Knockout Stage.’

The Austrian team is not known for being a dominating European football team, with a rocky tournament history in the recent past– they have not qualified for the last five World Cups and have never made it out of the Group Stage at the 2020 Euro. The Netherlands as well has struggled with an uneven track record: they failed to qualify for the 2016 Euro and the 2018 FIFA World Cup, but had an unforgettable run to third place at the World Cup in 2014. Despite this, Thursday’s match was highly anticipated, as it tracks the Dutch teams ascension out of Group C and into the next stage of the competition, possibly signaling a tournament comeback for the team.

The Netherlands’ stars commanded the field

The Netherlands are missing one of their biggest stars and team captain for the entirety of their run in the competition, defender Virgil van Dijk, who withdrew from the tournament completely in order to nurse a major injury. van Dijk is one of the most highly regarded defensive players in the world, but his absence has not yet proved to be a crippling setback for Holland.

Instead, other stars of the Western European team have risen to the occasion to lead the team steadily through their Group and into the Round of 16. Memphis Depay scored the first goal for the Dutch off a penalty given to Denzel Dumfries, and Dumfries later scored the second goal and game winner off of an assist from Donyell Malen.

The match was held in the winning team’s home city of Amsterdam, and the hosts did not disappoint their fans as they dominated possession throughout the game and saw many opportunities outside of their two goals. More than 12,000 people attended the match at the Johan Cruyff Arena.

Despite securing a spot in the next phase of the tournament, the Netherlands have one more game in their Group against North Macedonia. Austria will go on to play Ukraine, who lost 3-2 to the Dutch in the opening match of their Group.

This year’s European Championships were initially meant to be held in 2020, but were postponed due to the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on Europe. Although the tournament is being held in 2021, it has retained the year �’ in its name, and has been seen as the first major sporting event to be held with normal levels of fan attendance since the pandemic saw the restriction of public gatherings beginning in the Spring of 2020.

Some of the Weirdest Ancient Greek Customs

Model of the Temple of Artemis. Credit: Zee / cs.wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0

Undoubtedly, Ancient Greece was a fascinating civilization in the history of mankind in the modern world there are influences left by the Ancient Greeks everywhere in art, language, architecture, literature, philosophy and even customs.

But today we don’t practice many of those customs that they had in Ancient Greece — or do we? Here are some of the weirdest customs that the ancient Greeks practiced.

You don’t want to be unfaithful in Ancient Greece!

Infidelity was a crime punished and frowned upon according to ancient Greek customs, so for both men and women who were accused and found guilty of infidelity, one of the punishments applied to them was to insert a peeled ginger root in the anus or vagina this caused an intolerable burning sensation and pain in the intimate parts of the unfaithful.

You should think twice before cheating on your partner!

When you died you carried money with you by Ancient Greek custom

Charon and Psyche. Public domain.

In Greek mythology Hades had a ferryman named Charon, whom you had to pay so that he could transport you to the other side of the Acheron river if you couldn’t pay then you had to wander along the riverbank for a hundred years.

That’s why the Ancient Greeks buried the body of their dead with a coin under their tongue, so when they arrived at the river they could pay Charon and cross over.

The apple of discord… and love

Oil on Canvas of Eris offering the apple. Public domain.

In Greek mythology, the goddess of discord, Eris, angry at not having been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, threw a golden apple with the inscription “to the most beautiful” to cause a disruption. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena and Aphrodite.

Paris of Troy was appointed to choose the lucky one, awarding the apple to Aphrodite, and the discord began. This is what caused (indirectly) the Trojan War.

Since then the apple has been the symbol of Aphrodite. Thus, the ancient Greeks began to throw apples to their suitors as a token of love capturing the apple was a way of demonstrating reciprocal love.

Running in Ancient Greece

Greek athletes sprinting, terracotta amphora. Credit: RickyBennison – CC0

In Ancient Greece, athletes used to go to the gymnasium naked, and they ran for long distances without clothes. But this isn’t the strangest part of it — it turns out that at the end of their routines, athletes sold their sweat!

Just as you just read, it was customary for the Ancient Greeks to buy the sweat emitted by the naked bodies of athletes, as it was believed to relieve muscle aches and headaches.

Sacrifices everywhere

Sacrifices in Ancient Greece. Public Domain

Another custom among Ancient Greeks was the religious rituals sacrifices signified the solidarity and communion between humanity and divinity but it also demonstrated the difference of the natural world and the divine world. The sacrifice, or offering, was the heart of the ritual — that is, the center or the most important part of the whole process by Ancient Greece customs.

Sacrifices could be offered individually or in community, and they were allowed to be made in different places or in sacred temples. In the sanctuaries the ones who sacrificed were the priests, but it could also be the father of the family, or another person who was expert in these practices.

The animals that were sacrificed could be goats, lambs, pigs or chickens, the latter being the most modest offering, or an ox, which was the most prestigious.

For many years the Ancient Greeks sacrificed thousands of animals for the favor and blessing of the gods do you know what would happen if we did this now? Exactly!

The unmentionable

Fire temple of Artemis. Public domain.

For Ancient Greeks naming someone “Erostratus” was a forbidden custom.

Erostratus was a Greek shepherd who set fire to and destroyed the temple of Artemis in Ephesus, now considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. When his confession was extracted under torture, this man said that his only intention was to achieve fame.

Upon learning of Erostratus’ intentions, was forbidden on pain of death to mention his name or register future generations with that name.

Study Proves Humans and Neanderthals Lived Together 50,000 Years Ago

The Boker Tachtit archaeological site in the Negev Desert in Israel has shown to researchers that humans and Neanderthals lived together in the area 50,000 years ago. Credit: Facebook/Israel Antiquities Authority

New research from an Israeli archaeological dig has proven that modern humans and Neanderthals lived together in the Negev desert some 50,000 years ago. Not only that, but the site they excavated, Boker Tachtit, has now been established as the earliest known migration point from Africa for early Homo sapiens from the Levant.

In the Middle Palaeolithic era, 250,000–50,000 years ago, two humanoid species lived in the Old World at the same time: Neanderthal man and modern man (Homo sapiens).

The flint pieces examined at the Boker Tachtit site in the Negev Desert in Israel. Credit: Facebook/Israel Antiquities Authority

The Neanderthals lived in Europe and Central Asia, whereas modern man lived in Africa at that time.

As the Israel Antiquities Authority states regarding the ground-breaking findings, “the Middle East, and the region of Israel in particular, were at the limits of the distribution of these two species and they therefore also contain remnants of the two populations at different times.”

The research undertaken at the Boker Tachtit site in Ein Avdat National Park, in Israel’s Negev desert, has now provided the first proof of the two cultures’ coexistence there and pinpoints — for the first time ever — the exact time when modern humans left Africa.

Flint point representative of the Upper Paleolithic found in Boker Tachtit. Credit: Facebook/Clara Amit/ Israeli Antiquities Authority

A recent reexamination of artifacts from the Boker Tachtit site was the subject of a study published on Monday in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

The dig was led by researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science and the Max Planck Society, Prof. Elisabetta Boaretto, together with Dr. Omry Barzilai of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA).

“Boker Tachtit is the first site outside of Africa, which modern man penetrated on his way to the rest of the world, hence the importance of the site, as well as the importance of dating it accurately,” said Dr. Barzilai, the director of excavation at the Boker Tachtit site in the statement.

“The age of the site as dated in the study – 50,000 years – indicates that modern man existed in the area of the Negev at the same time as the Neanderthal man, who is known to have lived in it during this period,” he explained.

“There is no doubt that the two species who lived and roamed the Negev were aware of each other’s existence,” Barzilai declared, adding “Our research Boker Tachtit site places an important and unequivocal point of reference on the timeline of human evolution.”

The “recent African origin” theory of human development stipulates that Homo sapiens originated in Africa as early as 270,000 years ago at different times he took either the northern route to Eurasia, passing through the Levant, or several possible southern routes to all the corners of Asia.

Many believe that Homo sapiens even reached Oceania – getting as far as Australia, by land, at that time.

Scientist believe that DNA research shows the migration of modern humans began from Africa to Asia and Europe, and proceeded onward to the rest of the world approximately 60,000 years ago.

The clashing of the humans with their “cousins” the Neanderthals caused the latter to disappear as a group but at the same time assimilate into the entirety of the modern human population outside Africa.

Boker Tachtit, which is located in Ein Avdat National Park, is known to have served as a key site for tracing this migration out of Africa.

It is now proven to show the transition from a predominantly Neanderthal, prehistoric culture to the beginning of the triumph of modern humans, which occurred during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic era.

This vital turning point in development was marked by monumental technological innovations — including the making of blades and the introduction of standardized tools utilizing bones and antlers.

Anthony Marks, an American researcher who was the first to excavate and publish his findings from the Boker Tachtit site in the early 1980s, stated at the time that the site showed transitional industry from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic eras.

Based on one single radiocarbon date, he concluded that it dated back to 47,000 years ago.

Other dates obtained from artifacts at the site, however, came up with other dates, some of them ranging as far afield as 34,000 years ago, making the timing of the tool transition very problematic for researchers.

Boaretto, who heads up D-REAMS, the Dangoor Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, located at the Weizmann Institute, which specializes in advanced archaeological dating methods, explains further.

“If we are to follow this timeline, then the transitional period could have lasted more than 10,000 years, and yet artifacts excavated from northern sites in Israel, Lebanon and even Turkey suggest that the transition occurred much faster,” she says.

“Marks managed to date only a few specimens from Boker Tachtit, owing to the limitations of radiocarbon dating then, and the range of his proposed dates is not consistent with evidence gathered from other – old and new – excavation sites in the region,” Boaretto adds.

“Radiocarbon dating, the method that he used in his study, has evolved tremendously since his time,” she explains.

To finally arrive at some kind of understanding of the site, Boaretto, Barzilai and their team of researchers performed state of the art dating methods on specimens obtained from Boker Tachtit during the new excavations that they themselves undertook from 2013–2015.

These new dating techniques included high-resolution radiocarbon dating of single charcoal pieces found at the site and optically-stimulated luminescence-dating of single grains of quartz sand, performed respectively at the Weizmann Institute and at the Max-Planck Institute.

Boaretto, Barzilai and their team also took into account detailed studies of the sediments found at Boker Tachtit and employed micro-archaeological methods to understand how the site was initially formed, in order to discover information on its chronology.

“We are now able to conclude with greater confidence that the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition was a rather fast-evolving event that began at Boker Tachtit approximately 50-49,000 years ago and ended about 44,000 years ago,” Boaretto declared.

Her team’s new dating allows for a certain overlap between the transition that occurred at Boker Tachtit and that of the “Mediterranean woodland” region, including what is now Lebanon and Turkey, which happened between 49,000 and 46,000 years ago.

Barzilay said “The dating results prove – for the first time in prehistoric research – the hypothesis that there was indeed an overlap in space between the late Mostar culture, identified with Neanderthal man, and the Emirite culture, linked to the emergence of modern man in the Middle East.”

Even with this few thousand years’ overlap of time, the recent analysis shows that Boker Tachtit was the very earliest site for this transition in the Levant. Not only that, but based on the materials found, it also encapsulates evidence from the last time modern humans left on their different journeys out of Africa.

The new dating shows that the early phase at Boker Tachtit also overlaps with the existing Middle Paleolithic culture of the Neanderthals who were already proven to have lived there.

Boaretto and Barzilay conclude “This goes to show that Neanderthals and Homo sapiens in the Negev coexisted and most likely interacted with one another, resulting in not only genetic interbreeding, as is postulated by the ‘recent African origin’ theory, but also in cultural exchange.”

Persephone instrument

The Persephone is an analog fingerboard synthesizer from the year 2004 in the tradition of the first ribbon controlled instruments from the 1920s. [1] Beyond its vintage look, the Persephone allies sensors technology and digital controls to a pure analogue generation of sound. With its analogue oscillator, the Persephone can generate notes with a range of 10 octaves, which goes from a deep and. Persephone (instrument): | The |Persephone| is an analog |fingerboard synthesizer| from the year 2004 in the traditi. World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled

Persephone (instrument) Project Gutenberg Self

  • Den Persephone är en analog grepp synthesizer från år 2004 i traditionen av de första bandet kontrollerade instrument från 1920-talet. Utöver sitt vintageutseende allierar Persefone sensorteknik och digitala kontroller till en ren analog generation av ljud. Med sin analoga oscillator kan Persefone generera toner med ett intervall på 10 oktaver, som går från en djup och resonant.
  • Eowave Persephone mkII is the first analogue synth with a duophonic ribbon. Let's discover the instrument: the two oscillators
  • Discovering the duophonic ribbon, FM..
  • It is requested that one or more audio files of a musical instrument or component be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons and included in this article to improve its quality by demonstrating the way it sounds or alters sound. Please see Wikipedia:Requested recordings for more on this request
  • Persefone, även kallad Kore, var en gudinna i grekisk mytologi.Hon var dotter till Demeter och Zeus [1], samt mor till Macaria.. Myten om Persefone och Demeter förklarar hur årstiderna uppstod. När Persefone en dag plockade blommor på en äng tillsammans med sina väninnor, dök Hades, härskare över underjorden, upp ur marken och fick syn på henne
  • Available in 432 Hz only. In the religious culture of the myth, Persephone divides herself between day and night, everchanging lady of the cycle of seasons. She is the one who inspires our first instrument with a true double identity: nine notes on the upper part, four on the lower back

Persefone (instrument) - Persephone (instrument) - qaz

Persefona (instrument) - Persephone (instrument) Z Wikipedii, wolnej encyklopedii . Persefona jest analogiem podstrunnica syntezator od roku 2004 w tradycji pierwszych wstążka kontrolowanych instrumentów od 1920 roku. Poza klasycznym wyglądem. In spirit and design (if not technology) the Persephone is following a dimly remembered tradition of electronic instrumentation that dates back to before when keyboards became the standard. The Eowave Persephone is a ribbon-controlled analog instrument that recalls the first electric keyboards from the 1950s. Its ribbon virtual keyboard allows the kinds of glissando a Theremin or les Ondes Martenot would allow. The Persephone sound, created by a 100 % analog oscillator, is also inspired from these instruments and oscillates from human. The Persephone is an analog fingerboard synthesizer from the year 2004 in the tradition of the first ribbon controlled instruments from the 1920s. Beyond its vintage look, the Persephone allies sensors technology and digital controls to a pure analogue generation of sound. With its analogue oscillator, the Persephone can generate notes with a range of 10 octaves, which goes from a deep and. If you're looking for sheet music for Persephone then you have come to the right place. We offer original sheet music in a range of formats including, digital, hardcover, and softcover. Whether you place the piano, guitar, wind instruments, string instruments, percussion, or something else, we have the musical scores you're looking for

Eowave Persephone mkII: Discovering the instrument part 1

Instruments. Quadrantid Swarm Ribbon 2 Magma Domino (Legacy) Metallik Resonator 50cm Metallik Resonator 60cm Controllers. USB Foot Control USB Pedal Eomono USB Footswitch Where To Buy Contact FAQ Downloads Subscribe Research. SMA The Eowave Persephone is a ribbon-controlled analog instrument that recalls the first electric keyboards from the 1950s. Its ribbon virtual keyboard allows the kinds of glissando a Theremin or les Ondes Martenot would allow. The Persephone sound, created by a 100 % analog oscillator, is also inspired from these instruments and oscillates from human voices sonorities to cello vibrant tones

Henceforth, Persephone spends winter in the underworld and the other seasons on earth. In his poem and libretto, Gide recast the story. Most importantly, Perséphone chooses (by intentionally smelling a magic narcissus) to visit the underworld, because of her compassion for those doomed to dwell there, a people without hope, pale, unquiet, and sorrowful Persephone is the goddess of seasonal change and vegetation (particularly grain), and daughter of Demeter. She was the wife of Hades but has since left for the world above. She was noted to be a stately and kind woman in her time as Queen. She is Zagreus' birth mother. It is unknown why she left, or if she was successful in her escape, but she did not die. Nyx says that had she died, she would. Persephone, the daughter of Demeter and Zeus, was the wife of Hades and the Queen of the Underworld. She was a dual deity, since, in addition to presiding over the dead with intriguing autonomy, as the daughter of Demeter, she was also a goddess of fertility.The myth of her abduction by Hades was frequently used to explain the cycle of the seasons. . Together with her mother, she was the. Le résultat : un instrument innovant, avec des oscillateurs 100% analogiques, un ruban duophonique, une entière compatibilité avec l'environnement numérique avec USB I/O, MIDI I/O et 4 CV out. ? We?re exploring ideas from the past and rethinking them with new technology to create new interfaces for musical expression?, dit Marc Sirguy, designer du Persephone markII Persephone [instrument] The Persephone is an analog fingerboard synthesizer from the year 2004 in the tradition of the first ribbon controlled instruments from the 1920s. Beyond its vintage look, the Persephone allies sensors technology and digital controls to a pure analogue generation of sound

Eowave Persephone mkII: discovering the instrument part 3

Persephone Greek Goddess of Vegetation and The Underworld, persephone, greek mythology, greek goddess, persephone statue, goddess of nature. BetinaStatueShop. 5 out of 5 stars. (3) $152.00 FREE shipping. Only 1 available and it's in 3 people's carts. Add to Favorites Persephone's Handmaidens. Before the Sirens became the Sirens, they were mortal girls who served the goddess Persephone. These lovely girls trailed behind Persephone when she visited her favorite meadows to pick flowers. They sang to her in sweet voices and played instruments to please her

The Persephone sound, created by a 100 % analog oscillator, is also inspired from these instruments and oscillates from human voices sonorities to cello vibrant tones. The oscillator waveform can be set between sine and triangle for a more or less brilliant sound. The two play modes - velocity sensitive or not - offer different styles of play Persephone (musical instrument): part our commitment to scholarly and academic excellence, all articles receive editorial review.|||. World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled Persephone and developing an instrument. Ted discusses how code writing and sound manipulation have turned his computer into a personalized instrument. He also recalls how scrapping a whole movement late in the rehearsal process transformed the narrative arch of the piece for the better Persephone Index verktitlar: P Scenverk av Igor Stravinskij för recitatör, sångare och orkester (i melodram-stil), uppfört i Paris 1933

Persephone Mk II (suitcase) TEMPORARY OUT OF STOCK! We expect to receive the next shipment by the end of October. Eowave's all new analog duophonic ribbon synthesizer Eowave is rethinking. Aug 20, 2014 - This Pin was discovered by The Persephone Papers. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinteres

Talk:Persephone (instrument) - Wikipedi

They played music The instruments entered the orchestra as a way of evoking a certain association of the instrument, such as the military for the snare drum and the sounds of the Janissary Corps for timpani, or to evoke a certain sound, such as the xylophone being introduced in Saint-Saens's Danse Macrabre as a way to mimic the sound of rattling bones 11 The likes of Persephone, Demeter, Poseidon, and Euridyce have been recreated rather faithfully. Zagreus is more obscure, but he wasn't originally created for the game. Contradictory versions of his story place him as Hades and Persephone's son or as the offspring of Zeus and Persephone, and it's unclear precisely what he was considered the god of or just how powerful he is

They also accompanied their voices with musical instruments: lyres, flutes, and pipes. They also had—or claimed to have—prophetic abilities, which lent depth to the lyrics of their songs. Legends about Sirens Persephone's Handmaidens. Before the Sirens became the Sirens, they were mortal girls who served the goddess Persephone Stream Persephone Milk - Cosmic Milk by Persephone Milk from desktop or your mobile device. SoundCloud Persephone Milk - Cosmic Milk by Persephone Milk published on 2011-09 It is really an amazing instrument, and capable of so much more than piano sounds. So I decided to push myself a bit and lean on guitars and synthesizer leads for this one Information has URI: Meaning means (noun) (Greek mythology) daughter of Zeus and Demeter made queen of the underworld by. Item Stats: Duration +5 rounds Resist silence +0.75 Deals: Psychological damage +225 Obtainable from: FouFou (Dungeon Meet guitarists, drummers, bassists, singers and other musicians on Fandalism

Persephone is the one who brings the light, and this is a beautiful meaning! Another ancient form of the name in Phersephone or Phersepfata, a form closer to its constituent words. Persephone was the goddess of springtime, she has a lot to do with light, and nothing to do with murder Oct 25, 2012 - Eowave Persephone. Somewhere between a theremin and an ondes martenot Persephone, daughter of Demeter, goddess of fertility, plucks the narcissus, despite being warned not to by the Nymphs. She descends into the eternal winter of the underworld, from where she is rescued by Demeter, but it is her destiny continually to return to the world of shadows and suffering Perséphone: II. Perséphone aux Enfers MP3 Song by Anne Fournet from the album Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent. Download Perséphone: II. Perséphone aux Enfers song on and listen Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent Perséphone: II Persephone (pərsĕf´ənē) or Proserpine (prōsûr´pənē), in Greek and Roman religion and mythology, goddess of fertility and queen of the underworld. She was the daughter of Zeus and Demeter. When she was still a beautiful maiden, Pluto seized her and held her captive in his underworld

Perséphone: I. Perséphone ravie MP3 Song by Anne Fournet from the album Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent. Download Perséphone: I. Perséphone ravie song on and listen Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent Perséphone: I. Perséphone ravie song offline Persephone is the esoteric name of the Greek mythological daughter of Zeus by Demeter, the queen of the harvest. After she was kidnapped by Hades to be Queen of the Underworld, it was decreed by Zeus that she would spend six months of the year with her mother, allowing crops to grow, and six in mourning, thus accounting for the seasons Persephone Anderson-Byskou finns på Facebook Gå med i Facebook för att komma i kontakt med Persephone Anderson-Byskou och andra som du känner. Med.. Persephone remains eternally on the cusp of childhood and motherhood, creating many interpretations of her and her teachings throughout time. Persephone's story represents her personification of vegetation and her association with spring and the fertility of vegetation: shooting forth in spring and withdrawing into the Earth post-harvest

That instrument he plays, a bit like the harp that you have in your time, we call it a lyre. APOLLO No music in the world compares with mine! Persephone was so upset, I couldn't imagine she'd eaten a bite the whole time she was there. Still, down to the underworld I flew We all know that music is beneficial to the human mind: it lowers anxiety, pain levels, it alters your brainwaves and, of course, helps infants' brain development.The virtues of music have been known since the dawn of time: ancient mythology, regardless of its geographic location, is rife with myths referencing the power of musical instruments, which are usually able to bring order to chaos. The goddess of springtime will hold you enraptured her melodies will hold you hostage, you'll have no choice but to dance. Persephone Rose will bring to light everything that's been left in dark forgotten corners and hidden under the carpet Persephone is one of many myths about the Ancient Greek gods and goddesses. A number of them can be categorized as 'creation myths' because they explain natural phenomena - for example, Persephone is an explanation of the seasons. The characters in the story are: Demeter is Goddess of the Harvest. She travels the world in he

The Moirai (Ancient Greek: Μοῖραι) are the Destinies mentioned in Theogony, who are three daughters of the primeval goddess, Nyx (Night),[1] representing a power acting over the gods.[2]The Moirai were the white-robed incarnations of destiny who controlled the metaphorical thread of life of every mortal from birth to death. They were independent, at the helm of necessity, directed. Aug 20, 2014 - Leftover paper from cutting over 600 paper orchids. There is a certain beauty in the negative spaces (3 of 6)

. Use a mixing console in Pro version. Continue. Edit. Add to playlist. Favorite. Persephone Intro tab by Tamino. 2,020 views, added to favorites 61 times. Tuning: E A D G B E. Author timdebels [a] 44. Last edit on Sep 07, 2018. View interactive tab. Download Pd Welcome to the world of Greek Mythology! Explore and find out more about the Greek gods and goddesses. Plus, play Greek mythology games, view animated Greek myths, and take a quiz to see which god or goddess you would most be like our partners use cookies to personalize your experience, to show you ads based on your interests, and for measurement and analytics purposes. By using our website and our services, you agree to our use of cookies as described in our Cookie Policy Persephone Mythology Persephone was the young daughter of Zeus and Demeter. Hades is an instrument of the mundane in life that requires order, attention and lessons to be executed. Sexually he is her slave as he finds her most deepest desires and seeks to transform her through experience them,. Austrian/German neoclassical/gothic band, Type: Group, Founded: 2000, Area: German

Du måste inte skapa ett konto för att kunna handla hos oss, men fördelarna med att göra det är flera. Du kan till exempel hålla koll på dina order, spara önskelistor och dina recensioner Analog Synths For Sale on Reverb. While analog synth history arguably dates back to the late 19th-century, the story of what most people think of when they think of synths begins with the innovations of Bob Moog, Don Buchla, and other pioneers in the 1960s

Persefone - Wikipedi

  1. Listen to Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent on Spotify. Igor Stravinsky · Album · 2005 · 42 songs
  2. To have hands, voices or instruments ready for the activities. Story line. We meet Hades, In the third programme of the series Hades takes Persephone down to his underground kingdom
  3. Explore releases from Persephone's Bees at Discogs. Shop for Vinyl, CDs and more from Persephone's Bees at the Discogs Marketplace
  4. Hades and Persephone meet for the first time at the Annual Autumn Festival. Things heat up. Olympus AU: Persephone never ended up in the backseat of Hades car after the Panathenaea, instead, Eros took her home to make sure that she was safe

Persephone Handpan in C Minor at 432 H

May 12, 2019 - This Pin was discovered by Ramsay Scone. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinteres All instruments, Vocals (2009-present) See also: ex-Negativ : Past : Negativ: Vocals (additional) (2011-2013) See also: Daukjøtt, Raseri, ex-Angstmaskin, ex-Her Ethic, ex-Negativ : Past (Live) Kristof de Greef: Bas Listen to Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent by Kent Nagano, Anthony Rolfe Johnson, London Symphony Orchestra, London Philharmonic Orchestra, London Philharmonic Choir, Tiffin Boys' Choir, Igor Stravinsky. Stream now on IDAGI

Persefona (instrument) - Persephone (instrument) - qaz

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  • The mission payload includes 11 instruments: Panchromatic and Color High-Resolution Imager Low-Light Camera Ultra-Violet Spectrometer Near-Infrared (IR) Spectrometer Thermal IR Camera Radio Frequency Spectrometer Mass Spectrometer Altimeter Sounding Radar Magnetometer and Plasma Spectrometer
  • Peter Pringle also has a webpage about the Persephone including an MP3 he recorded using it. [edit] 04/14/09 Since Peter Pringle has sold his Persephone, it seems he has removed the MP3 of the piece he played using it from his website
  • Print and Download Persephone And The Four Seasons (2006, Rev. 2009) For Oboe Solo And Orchestra. sheet music. Score sheet music by Thomas Oboe Lee: Thomas Oboe Lee at Sheet Music Plus. (S0.11523)
  • Hades and Persephone by A. Donaghy . 0. 0. BPM. Title. Instrument. Check out Lucent's Guide to Online Sequencer. Grid. Time signature. Key (Auto Detect) Auto Scroll.
  • He cunningly tricked Persephone into eating some pomegranate seeds before leaving, Apuleius, Metamorphoses 9.10), and carried the sistrum, the characteristic percussion instrument for the cult, also of Egyptian origin . Like.

Hey, what's that sound: The Persephone Pop and rock

  1. Spring The music on this album was created with love and the following instruments: John Bowen Solaris Waldorf Microwave mk1 Waldorf Microwave XT Vermona '14 Vermona Perfourmer Vermona Mono Lancet Serge Modular Sequential Circuits Prophet 600 Sequential Circuits Six-Trak Analogue Solutions Leipzig SK Kawai K3 and K3m Industrial Music Electronics Azathoth Ensoniq VFX Yamaha VL1 and VL1-m Yamaha TG33 Nord Stage 76 Korg MS20 Korg Electribe ES-1 Korg Electribe ER-1 Acidlab Miami Native.
  2. Answer: Persephone is the Greek mythological figure who, after being kidnapped by the god of the underworld, eats a single pomegranate seed—an act that becomes her downfall. Question: What musical instrument is the Greek god Pan associated with
  3. Apollo (Greek god of healing, medicine, music, and poetry): Lyre (musical instrument), bow and arrow, python, a laurel wreath, and the sun Facts: Hermes invented the Lyre but used it against Apollo when stealing his cattle. When Apollo noticed his cattle had been stolen, he confronted Hermes, who began playing music on the Lyre
  4. e consumed the world and killed so many people that Zeus eventually commanded Hades to return his prize. However, wily Hades tricked Persephone into eating pomegranate seeds from the underworld, forever tying her to the land of the dead. They struck a deal that Persephone should spend four months of each year with Hades

Stravinsky: Persephone Zvezdoliki Symphonies of Wind Instruments Concertino for 12 Instruments Octet for Wind Instruments (Irene Jacob, narrator John Aler, tenor Orchestra of St. Luke's. Persephone Sheet Music: Personalized Name Letter P Blank Manuscript Notebook Journal Instrument Composition Book for Musician & Composer 12 Staves per Guide Create, Compose & Write Creative Songs: Publications, Customeyes: Book Religious feeling is also evident in the ballets Apollon musagète (1928) and in Persephone (1934). The Russian element in Stravinsky's music occasionally reemerged during this period: the ballet The Fairy's Kiss (1928) is based on music by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , and the Symphony of Psalms has some of the antique austerity of Russian Orthodox chant , despite its Latin text Once he left, Persephone showed Neo, Trinity, and Morphues to the Keymaker's lair, where the Keymaker was waiting for the day we would finally aid The One. When about to leave the Chateau, the Merovingian and his henchmen entered the Chateau. When asked why Persephone betrayed her husband, she answered by taunting him about causality

Persephone - Synthtopi

In programme five Persephone is offered magic food by Hades - if she accepts she will have to stay underground with him forever. audio. 6. Persephone is home. In programme six Persephone is. Listen to Stravinsky: Le Sacre du Printemps, L'Oiseau de Jeu, Perséphone, Symphonies d'instruments a vent by Kent Nagano/London Symphony Orchestra/London Philharmonic Orchestra on Deezer. Symphonies of Wind Instruments, Le Sacre du printemps, Première Partie: L'Adoration de la terre: Introduction, Stravinsky: Le Sacre du printemps, Pt. 1: L'Adoration de la Terre, 2 Stravinsky's Perséphone (1934) is a dynamic music-theatrical narration of the myth of Persephone's abduction to the underworld and return to earth. The transpa Artemis - Bruker Avance-400 High-throughput with a state-of-the-art robot enables up to 600 samples to be characterized on this instrument per day. Automation mode, greatly simplifies access and training. Artemis is central to research education in our facility, and enables large-scale surveys of reaction and chromatographic assays for research Persephone Station, a seemingly backwater planet that has largely been ignored by the United Republic of Worlds becomes the focus for the Serrao-Orlov Corporation as the planet has a few secrets the corporation tenaciously wants to exploit

Persephone musical instrument : définition de persephone

  • All original works (compositions and arrangements) of this person are still under copyright in Canada, the EU, Japan and elsewhere and are thus subject to immediate deletion. These works are also probably still under copyright in the U.S. if first published after 1925
  • This includes works originally scored for solo viola. See also For viola (arr), Scores featuring the viola, For violin, For viola da gamba. → Sort this list by work type, instrumentation, composer, and more
  • Persephone 2020 Ombre Blonde Bob Wig Synthetic Fiber Short Wavy Wigs for Women Glueless 2 Tones 613 Hair Replacement Wigs with Brown Roots Heat Resistant. 4.1 out of 5 stars. 107. $19.99
  • Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where Persephone is defined. General (20 matching dictionaries) Persephone: [home, info] Persephone: Oxford Dictionaries [home, info] Persephone: American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language [home, info] Persephone: Collins English Dictionary [home, info
  • 29.08.2018 - Просмотрите доску «music instruments» пользователя Julia в Pinterest. Посмотрите больше идей на темы «музыка, скрипка, музыкальные инструменты»
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  • utes of pure quality prog. The album focuses on primarily the vocals of Heidi Engel who is exceptional, and some fine musicianship from Rowen Poole on guitars and synths, Chris Siegle on bass and synths, Jim Puskar on percussion, Jason English on guitars, and Laura Martin on keyboards

Persephone Sheet Music - Apassan

Is your love of music damaging your hearing? An audiologist tells you what you can do about it. By Brian Taylor, AuD Musicians and music lovers are at greater risk of suffering the effects of tinnitus and noise-induced hearing loss, but it doesn't have to be that way, says Brian Taylo A good friend has a Persephone: EVERYONE took the piss out of her name choice (behind her back) whilst telling her what a pretty/unusual name it is. Quite surprising really as lots of my friend's kids have unusual names - but Persephone was the only one that has been so horridly slated File:Pluto Serapis and Persephone Isis Heraklion museum.jpg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. Jump to navigation Jump to search. File File history File usage on Commons File usage on other wikis Metadata Size of this preview: 733 × 600 pixels

Eowave - modular, synthesizers and controllers for musi

Persephone. Chapter Eleven. A/N: Dr Syn is the intellectual property of writer MeowthTwo on this site and is used with her permission. Speech 'like this' is commed speech.. There was a stunned silence for a second after Sam disappeared from the building, holding one of his Guardians under one arm, the second clasping the Decepticon Leader to his other side Symphonies of Wind Instruments (1920, rev. 1947) Svit ur Pulcinella (1920) Svit nr 2 för kammarorkester (1921) Svit nr 1 för kammarorkester (1925) Quatre études för orkester (1928) Divertimento (Svit ur Le Baiser de la fée, 1934) Concerto i Ess-dur för kammarorkester (1938) Symfoni i C-dur (1940) Cirkuspolka för orkester (1942 Merry Christmas @hedgemaze. It's ya bands! #catband #Hedgemaze Expo #Persephone's Winter #Amber #Bane #Jill #Mitzy #Haggis #Izzy #Roadie #Scurvy #Xero #OCs #art #illustration #band #bands #instruments #guitar #acoustic guitar #electric guitar #piano #keyboard #drum kit #instrument #musical instruments

2: Image Attributions

Image 5: N. C. Wyeth (1882-1945), The Sirens, 1929, oil on canvas, 48 1/2 x 38 1/4&Prime. Brandywine Museum purchase, 1991.

Oresteia &ndash Introduction

Image 2: &ldquoOrestes Apollo Louvre Cp710&rdquo by Bibi Saint-Pol is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 1: &ldquoThe Mutilation of Uranus by Saturn&rdquo by Dodo is licensed under PD-US

Image 2: &ldquoSickle without background&rdquo by Amada44 is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Image 3: &ldquoOmfalos, AM Delphi, 0004&rdquo by Zde is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Image 4: &ldquoAtlas (Farnese Globe)&rdquo by Gabriel Seah is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 5: &ldquoObjectivist1&rdquo by Michael Greene is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Image 1: &ldquoOrfeo, euridice ed hermes, da torre del greco, copia augustea da orig. greco del 450 ac ca. 6727&rdquo by Sailko is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1: &ldquoPinax with Persephone and Hades Enthroned, 500-450 BC, Greek, Locri Epizephirii, Mannella district, Sanctuary of

Persephone, terracotta &ndash Cleveland Museum of Art &ndash DSC08242&rdquo by Daderot is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 2: &ldquoDante Gabriel Rossetti &ndash Proserpine- Google Art Project&rdquo by Tate Britain is licensed under PD-US

Image 1: &ldquoCorreggio &ndash Danaë -WGA05341&rdquo by Web Gallery of Art is licensed under Public Domain

Image 2: &ldquoDanae gold shower CA925&rdquo by Marie Lan Nguyen is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 4: &ldquoPerseus Cellini Loggia dei Lanzi 2005 09 13&rdquo by Marie Lan Nguyen is licensed under CC BY 2.5

Image 5: &ldquoPerseus with the Head of Medusa MET DP249451&rdquo by Pharos is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 6: &ldquoPerseus and andromeda amphora&rdquo by Montrelais is licensed under by CC BY 3.0

Image 1: &ldquoAthena Poseidon Cdm Paris DeRidder222&rdquo by Shakko is licensed under PD-US

Image 2: &ldquoMedusa by Caravaggio 2&rdquo by &ldquoGhirlandajo&rdquo is licensed under Public Domain

Image 4: &ldquoPoseidon Sounion Shapiro&rdquo by Susan Shapiro is licensed under CC BY 4.0

Image 1: &ldquoCorinth Archaeological Museum Sphinx Shapiro photo&rdquo by Susan O. Shapiro is licensed under CC BY 4.0

Image 2: &ldquoOedipus and the Sphinx of Thebes, Red Figure Kylix, c. 470 BC, from Vulci, attributed to the Oedipus Painter, Vatican Museums (9665213064)&rdquo by Carole Roddato is licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

Image 3: &ldquoOedipus and the Sphinx 1864&rdquo by Met Museum is licensed under Public Domain

Image 1: &ldquoDrunken satyr MAN Napoli Inv5628 n0&rdquo by Marie Lan Nguyen is licensed under CC BY 2.5

Image 2: &ldquoTheseus Minotaur BM Vase E84&rdquo by Marie Lan Nguyen is licensed under CC BY 2.5

Image 3: &ldquoStatue of Ariadne on Naxos Shapiro1&rdquo by Susan O. Shapiro is licensed under CC BY 4.0

12 Labors of Heracles

Image 1: &ldquoHerakles 1st labor: The Nemean Lion&rdquo by Egisto Sani is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

Image 2: &ldquoLernaean Hydra Louvre CA598&rdquo by Bibi Saint-Pol

Image 4: &ldquoMosaico de los trabajos de Hércules, Museo Arqueológico Nacional, Madrid, España, 2016 04&rdquo by Benjamín Núñez González is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0

Image 5: &ldquoHerakles Geryon Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2620&rdquo by Bibi Saint-Pol is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 6: &ldquoHerakles Kerberos Louvre F204&rdquo by Bibi Saint-Pol is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 1: &ldquoKylix (29366674371)&rdquo by Tm is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Image 2: &ldquoZeus Typhon Staatliche Antikensammlungen 596&rdquo by Bibi Saint-Pol is licensed under CC0 1.0

Image 3: &ldquoThe Flight of Europa&rdquo by Kwork2 is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Image 4: &ldquoZeus-Gany-sculpt1&rdquo by Tetrakyts is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 5: &ldquoThe Abduction of Ganymede&rdquo by Marsyas is licensed under Public Domain

Image 6: &ldquoNAMA Poséidon&rdquo by Marsyas is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

Statue Group of Persephone-Isis and Pluto-Serapis with Cerberus - History

This is a simple index into the mini-pages on this site which show full details of coins which are shown in part on other pages. They are in alphabetical order of emperor (or other obverse figure).

The numbering of each coin is not important &ndash it relates to the order in which I photographed the coins. There are gaps in the numbering because I have more coins than are shown on this site. I have left the numbers as an easy way to distinguish between different coins.

The coins are listed in sections, each section in alphabetical order. Here are links to the sections:

The "Roman Imperial" section excludes all but one example each of the Constans and Constantius II "hut" coins, which have their own complete gallery here: Gallery of Constans and Constantius II hit coins.

As I find out more about a coin, I may update the mini-page with a better description or a more accurate attribution. Those changes don't always make their way to this page! So, if in doubt, please click the link for up-to-date details.

Statue Group of Persephone-Isis and Pluto-Serapis with Cerberus - History

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    Tags gortyn
    Related groups — gortyn
    View allAll Photos Tagged gortyn

    "Crete hosts an extremely rare and endemic variety of plane trees (Platanus orientalis var. Cretica) with about 50 trees being reported throughout the island. The characteristic feature of this variety is that it is evergreen, unlike the common deciduous plane trees.

    One of these trees is of great historical and mythological value and has survived the centuries, since the Minoan era. This is the plane of Gortyna, which still stands proudly in the back side of the current archaeological site of ancient Gortys.

    The plane was dedicated to Zeus and according to mythology, under this tree, Zeus mated with Europa after transferring her to Crete from [the Levant]*. This is where she conceived her children Minos, Sarpedon and Radamanthys. Since then, the plane did not lose its foliage again. The importance given to this tree is very clear by the depiction of Europa under the tree in the ancient coins of Gortys."

    *The author writes "Africa" here, but this isn't correct.

    Here you can find a picture of a coin of Gortys depicting Europa under a plane tree:

    One of the first recorded engraved rules of law. Writing on a stone wall in Messara Plain, Crete.

    The form of writing is "boustrophedon", left-to-right and right-to-left in alternate lines.

    When this massive church was excavated early in the 20th century, archaeologists dubbed it the church of "St. Titus", assuming the large church was dedicated to the Crete's patron saint. However, the actual dedication of this church is unknown.

    It was built sometime in the late sixth or early seventh century. The plan of the church is an inscribed cross with four vaulted naves and low dome at the center. The nave had three aisles. Builders used large limestone ashlar blocks in the construction.

    The view here is from the paved atrium on the west side looking east towards the sanctuary, which was a domed triconch.

    Follow me on Twitter @arturoviaggia

    Except for periods of abandonment, other cities were founded in the immediate vicinity, such as the Roman colony, and a Hellenistic Greek precedent. The population shifted to the new town of Chandax (modern Heraklion) during the 9th century AD. By the 13th century, it was called Makruteikhos 'Long Wall' the bishops of Gortyn continued to call themselves Bishops of Knossos until the 19th century. Today, the name is used only for the archaeological site now situated in the expanding suburbs of Heraklion.

    Knossos (alternative spellings Knossus, Cnossus, Gnossus), is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not.

    The city of Knossos remained important through the Classical and Roman periods, but its population shifted to the new Arab town of ?andaq (modern Heraklion) during the 9th century AD. By the 13th century, it was called Makryteikhos 'Long Wall' the bishops of Gortyn continued to call themselves Bishops of Knossos until the 19th century.[1] Today, the name is used only for the archaeological site situated in the suburbs of Heraklion.

    The ruins at Knossos were discovered in 1878 by Minos Kalokairinos, a Cretan merchant and antiquarian. He conducted the first excavations, which brought to light part of the storage magazines in the west wing and a section of the west facade. After Kalokairinos, several people attempted to continue the excavations, but it was not until March 16, 1900 that archaeologist Arthur Evans, an English gentleman of independent means, was able to purchase the entire site and conduct massive excavations. The excavation and restoration of Knossos, and the discovery of the culture he labelled Minoan, is inseparable from the individual Evans.

    Knossos (alternative spellings Knossus, Cnossus, Gnossus), is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not.

    The city of Knossos remained important through the Classical and Roman periods, but its population shifted to the new Arab town of ?andaq (modern Heraklion) during the 9th century AD. By the 13th century, it was called Makryteikhos 'Long Wall' the bishops of Gortyn continued to call themselves Bishops of Knossos until the 19th century.[1] Today, the name is used only for the archaeological site situated in the suburbs of Heraklion.

    The ruins at Knossos were discovered in 1878 by Minos Kalokairinos, a Cretan merchant and antiquarian. He conducted the first excavations, which brought to light part of the storage magazines in the west wing and a section of the west facade. After Kalokairinos, several people attempted to continue the excavations, but it was not until March 16, 1900 that archaeologist Arthur Evans, an English gentleman of independent means, was able to purchase the entire site and conduct massive excavations. The excavation and restoration of Knossos, and the discovery of the culture he labelled Minoan, is inseparable from the individual Evans.

    Gortyne fut une cité grecque et une importante cité romaine. L'odéon actuel date du 1er siècle

    Ce site archéologique est célèbre pour les lois gravées sur un mur au 5ème siècle avant J.-C. (code de Gortyne) et qui ont été découvertes au début du 20è siècle par un archéologue italien. Ce code très complet est écrit en dialecte dorien de Crète en alphabet archaïque. Il contient des survivances de la période minoenne.

    Gortyne n'est qu'à une dizaine de kilomètres de Phaistos, la ville s'est développée après l'abandon de Phaistos.

    More generally, labyrinth might be applied to any extremely complicated maze-like structure. Herodotus, in Book II of his Histories, describes as a "labyrinth" a building complex in Egypt, "near the place called the City of Crocodiles," that he considered to surpass the pyramids:

    It has twelve covered courts — six in a row facing north, six south — the gates of the one range exactly fronting the gates of the other. Inside, the building is of two storeys and contains three thousand rooms, of which half are underground, and the other half directly above them. I was taken through the rooms in the upper storey, so what I shall say of them is from my own observation, but the underground ones I can speak of only from report, because the Egyptians in charge refused to let me see them, as they contain the tombs of the kings who built the labyrinth, and also the tombs of the sacred crocodiles. The upper rooms, on the contrary, I did actually see, and it is hard to believe that they are the work of men the baffling and intricate passages from room to room and from court to court were an endless wonder to me, as we passed from a courtyard into rooms, from rooms into galleries, from galleries into more rooms and thence into yet more courtyards. The roof of every chamber, courtyard, and gallery is, like the walls, of stone. The walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade.

    During the 19th century, the remains of this structure were discovered by Flinders Petrie at the foot of the pyramid of Amenemhat III at Hawara in the Faiyum Oasis. The Classical accounts of various authors (Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, among others) are not entirely consistent, perhaps due to degradation of the structure during Classical times. In origin, the structure was likely a collection of funerary temples such as are commonly found near Egyptian pyramids.

    In 1898, the Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities described the structure as "the largest of all the temples of Egypt, the so-called Labyrinth, of which, however, only the foundation stones have been preserved."

    Herodotus' description of the Egyptian Labyrinth inspired some central scenes in Bolesław Prus' 1895 historical novel, Pharaoh.

    Although early Cretan coins occasionally exhibit branching (multicursal) patterns, the single-path (unicursal) seven-course "Classical" design without branching or dead ends became associated with the Labyrinth on coins as early as 430 BC, and similar non-branching patterns became widely used as visual representations of the Labyrinth – even though both logic and literary descriptions make it clear that the Minotaur was trapped in a complex branching maze. Even as the designs became more elaborate, visual depictions of the mythological Labyrinth from Roman times until the Renaissance are almost invariably unicursal. Branching mazes were reintroduced only when garden mazes became popular during the Renaissance.

    In English, the term labyrinth is generally synonymous with maze. As a result of the long history of unicursal representation of the mythological Labyrinth, however, many contemporary scholars and enthusiasts observe a distinction between the two. In this specialized usage maze refers to a complex branching multicursal puzzle with choices of path and direction, while a unicursal labyrinth has only a single path to the center. A labyrinth in this sense has an unambiguous route to the center and back and presents no navigational challenge.Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek, Minoan origin, which the Greeks associated with the palace of Knossos in Crete. It is also widely associated with the Lydian word labrys ("double-edged axe"), and since the double axe motif appears in the ruins at Knossos, it has been suggested that the original labyrinth was the royal Minoan palace in Crete. This designation may not have been limited to Knossos, because the same symbols were discovered in other palaces in Crete.The first ever organized group to officially call themselves Gnostics had lived on the island of Crete Cretan_Labyrinthand many other lands around the world for thousands of years. They were said to have come to Crete from Egypt with their Phoenician Prince Cadmus. According to Herodotus and Strabo, these people were originally known as the Phoenicians who accompanied Cadmus out of Phoenicia.The meaning of Cadmus is “he who came from the East.” These ancient Gnostics were known by several names over this long-span of time such as the Curetes, Telchines, Ophites, Hivites, the Priests of Pan, and the Sons of Mizraim (Hebrew), meaning “Sons of Egypt.” In the bible they are called the Nephilim, the Sons of God, Sons of Abraham, and Sons of Noah who are the original Phoenician Hebrews and Israelites that created the esoteric gnostic literature masterpieces known as the Old and New Testament Bibles.Their symbols are the serpent, the bull, the ram and horns (hippocampus or ammon’s horn). They were the followers of the”The Sacred Serpent,” “The Sacred Bull,” “The Sun in Taurus,” “The Soul of Osiris,” and “The Retiring of the Bull.” These gnostics were also the original builders of the city of the Ram that we know of as Rome (Rama), by its founder Romulus (Ram-ulus). An interesting note is that this is the year 2015, the year of the Ram. It makes sense that the Romans (Ram-ans) originally came from Egypt and then Crete because of their reverence for the obelisk of Ramses II, and Caesar’s needle.It was on Crete where the Gnostic Sons of Egypt had built the ancient city of Gnosis that today is called Knossos (/ˈnɒsəs/ also spelled Knossus, Cnossus, Greek Κνωσός, pronounced [knoˈsos] ). The word Knossos is derived from the etymology of the word Gnosis. A word that simply means “know, knowledge, knowledgeable, knowingly, etc.,” and are derived from the Old Latin words, ‘Gnosoo,’ where we get the modern Latin word ‘novi’ which is a noun that means “actual knowledge which is the result of past learning,” and ‘noscos’ which is the present use of the verb ‘novi,’ and it denotes “to learn.”In the city of Gnosis they had built the world’s most famous Gnostic Labyrinth of Initiation ever known.reverence for the obelisk of Ramses II, and Caesar’s needle.

    Labrys was a cult-word that was probably introduced from Anatolia, where such symbols have been found in Çatal Höyük from the Neolithic age. In Labraunda of Caria the double-axe accompanies the storm-god Zeus Labraundos (Ζεὺς Λαβρανδεύς). It also accompanies the Hurrian god of sky and storm Teshub (his Hittite and Luwian name was Tarhun).

    Labrys, however, comes from Lydian, not Minoan, and the association of labyrinth with labrys remains speculative.[15] The Linear B (Mycenaean) inscription on tablet ΚΝ Gg 702 is interpreted as da-pu2-ri-to-jo, po-ti-ni-ja (labyrinthoio potnia, "Mistress of the labyrinth). The word daburinthos (labyrinthos) may show the same equivocation between initial d- and l- as is found in the variation of the early Hittite royal name Tabarna / Labarna (where written t- may represent phonetic d-). The original Minoan word, which is attested in Linear A tablets, appears to refer to labyrinthine underground grottoes, such as seen at Gortyn.[18] Pliny the Elder's four examples of labyrinths are all complex underground structures, and this appears to have been the standard Classical understanding of the word.

    By the 4th century BC, the Greeks also associated the Labyrinth with the familiar "Greek key" patterns of endlessly running meanders.[20] Coins from Knossos were struck with the labyrinth symbol in the 5th through 3rd centuries BC. The predominant labyrinth form during this period is the simple seven-circuit style known as the classical labyrinth, and over time the term labyrinth came to be applied to any unicursal maze, which were typically rendered as circular or rectangular patterns.Silver coin from Knossos representing the Labyrinth, 400 BC. In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Greek: Λαβύρινθος labyrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos. Its function was to hold the Minotaur, the monster eventually killed by the hero Theseus. Daedalus had so cunningly made the Labyrinth that he could barely escape it after he built it.

    It was on Crete where the Gnostic Sons of Egypt had built the ancient city of Gnosis that today is called Knossos (/ˈnɒsəs/ also spelled Knossus, Cnossus, Greek Κνωσός, pronounced [knoˈsos] ). The word Knossos is derived from the etymology of the word Gnosis. A word that simply means “know, knowledge, knowledgeable, knowingly, etc.,” and are derived from the Old Latin words, ‘Gnosoo,’ where we get the modern Latin word ‘novi’ which is a noun that means “actual knowledge which is the result of past learning,” and ‘noscos’ which is the present use of the verb ‘novi,’ and it denotes “to learn.”

    In the city of Gnosis they had built the world’s most famous Gnostic Labyrinth of Initiation ever known.

    It was here in the city of Knossos where Sir Arthur Evans had discovered evidence of Europe’s oldest merchant people whom he called the ‘Minoans.’ A name that means the “Children of Jupiter”, with their King Minos (Jupiter). It is in this City of Gnosis that Evans had discovered the famous, and mysterious structure called “the labyrinth.”

    The great inventor Daedalus was said to have designed the labyrinth, and the gnostic kings of CreteLabyrinth kept the great half man and half bull Minotaur in it. Here is Sir Arthur Evans explanation of the story of the labyrinth “and the fondness of the Cretans for bull fights as the foundation of the legend of the Minotaur, while the tribute of the Athenians indicates the widespread power of the Cretan kings which extended over the whole Egean region. This dominance rested wholly on sea-power and was so great that the palace at Knossos was without walls and fortifications. The strong defence of the island state was evidently its fleet, and practically the whole intercourse of these Mediterranean lands was carried on by the Cretan ships.”When the Bronze Age site at Knossos was excavated by explorer Arthur Evans, the complexity of the architecture prompted him to suggest that the palace had been the Labyrinth of Daedalus. Evans found various bull motifs, including an image of a man leaping over the horns of a bull, as well as depictions of a labrys carved into the walls. On the strength of a passage in the Iliad,[21] it has been suggested that the palace was the site of a dancing-ground made for Ariadne by the craftsman Daedalus, where young men and women, of the age of those sent to Crete as prey for the Minotaur, would dance together. By extension, in popular legend the palace is associated with the myth of the Minotaur.

    In the 2000s, archaeologists explored other potential sites of the labyrinth. Oxford University geographer Nicholas Howarth believes that 'Evans's hypothesis that the palace of Knossos is also the Labyrinth must be treated sceptically.' Howarth and his team conducted a search of an underground complex known as the Skotino cave but concluded that it was formed naturally. Another contender is a series of underground tunnels at Gortyn, accessed by a narrow crack but expanding into interlinking caverns. Unlike the Skotino cave, these caverns have smooth walls and columns, and appear to have been at least partially man-made. This site corresponds to an unusual labyrinth symbol on a 16th-century map of Crete contained in a book of maps in the library of Christ Church, Oxford. A map of the caves themselves was produced by the French in 1821. The site was also used by German soldiers to store ammunition during the Second World War. Howarth's investigation was shown on a documentary[ produced for the National Geographic Channel.

    The etymology of the word labyrinth (labyrinthine or labyrinthian) is made of the three words, lab, ryne and thian. The meaning of lab is a building, part of a building, or other place equipped to conduct scientific experiments, tests, investigations, or to manufacture. This gave rise to the current definition of laboratory, and labor. The meaning of the word ryn or ryne is a course, race, a course of years, watercourse (blood course) and life. The meaning of the word thine or thian is heaven.

    One of the rituals was known as the “Mistress of the Labyrinth” which was said to be the Phoenician and Greek view a gnostic prison of the soul is which the initiate has to battle the dreaded Minotaur in order to find their ways out of the massive maze. Very few people were known to have escaped from the Labyrinth to find true gnosis. The one who killed the Minotaur was the founder-king of Athens, Theseus. His name means The Zeus or The Jupiter.

    The labyrinth rituals were symbolic to the illusions of the lower world through which wanders the soul of man in its search for truth. The Minotaur symbolizes man who is part animal and part divine as he moves down his path of gnosis as he is entangled in the maze of worldly ignorance that seeks to destroy his soul. The labyrinth is the building or temple of our bodies and heads in which we make sense of spiritual motion of the soul in our blood. It is the gnostic path of manmade mazes to our pasts that we search the many false courses to that one path of truth inside each one of us known as heaven.

    moe-sword. The city where this plan would help take form, would be on the island of Crete which happens to be named after the Greek word Kriti (Kri-ti), which means ‘creation.’The meaning of the English word Cre’ate, is “to form out of nothing, to creo, creatum – cause to exist.” Hence, FIAT LUX. An island named after creation that also happens to be the home of one of the original “Ancient City of Gnosis and that today is called, Knossos.”

    This great Cretan Gnostic labyrinth built by the Sons of Mizraim who were also known as the Nephilim would become the blueprints for our modern world that we see today. The ancient secret gnostic rites and initiations to gnosis would then become the base teachings of world-wid Alchemy, religious orders such as the Rosicrucians, Illuminati and many other secret orders.

    Carving showing the warrior Abhimanyu entering the chakravyuha – Hoysaleswara temple, Halebidu, India

    A design essentially identical to the 7-course "classical" pattern appeared in Native American culture, the Tohono O'odham people labyrinth which features I'itoi, the "Man in the Maze." The Tonoho O'odham pattern has two distinct differences from the classical: it is radial in design, and the entrance is at the top, where traditional labyrinths have the entrance at the bottom (see below). The earliest appearances cannot be dated securely the oldest is commonly dated to the 17th century.The Chakravyūha or Padmavyūha is a multi-tiered defensive formation that looks like a blooming lotus (पद्म padma) or disc (चक्र chakra) when viewed from above.[1] The warriors at each interleaving position would be in an increasingly tough position to fight. The formation was used in the battle of Kurukshetra by Dronacharya, who became commander-in-chief of the Kaurava army after the fall of Bhishma Pitamaha.

    The various vyūhas (military formations) were studied by the Kauravas and Pandavas alike. Most of them can be beaten using a counter-measure targeted specifically against that formation. It is important to observe that in the form of battle described in the Mahabharata, it was important to place powerful fighters in positions where they could inflict maximum damage to the opposing force, or defend their own side. As per this military strategy, a specific stationary object or a moving object or person could be captured, surrounded and fully secured during battle.

    The formation begins with two soldiers on both sides, with other soldiers following them at a distance of three hands, drawing up seven circles and culminating in the end which is the place where the captured person or object is to be kept. In order to form the Chakravyuha, the commander has to identify soldiers who will form this formation. The number of soldiers to be deployed and the size of the Chakravyuha is calculated as per the resistance estimated. Once drawn, the foremost soldiers come on either side of the opponent to be captured, engage briefly and then advance. Their place is taken up by the next soldiers on either side, who again engage the opponent briefly and then advance. In this fashion, a number of soldiers pass the enemy and proceed in a circular pattern. By the time the rear of the formation arrives, the oblivious enemy is surrounded on all sides by seven tiers of soldiers. The last soldiers of the formation give the signal of completing the Chakravyuha. On the signal, every soldier who so far has been facing outwards turns inwards to face the opponent. It is only then that the captured enemy realizes his captivity. The army maintains the circular formation and can lead away the captive as well.

    A prehistoric petroglyph on a riverbank in Goa shows the same pattern and has been dated to circa 2500 BC.[33] Other examples have been found among cave art in northern India and on a dolmen shrine in the Nilgiri Mountains, but are difficult to date accurately. Early labyrinths in India typically follow the Classical pattern or a local variant of it some have been described as plans of forts or cities.

    Labyrinths appear in Indian manuscripts and Tantric texts from the 17th century onward. They are often called "Chakravyuha" in reference to an impregnable battle formation described in the ancient Mahabharata epic. Lanka, the capital city of mythic Rāvana, is described as a labyrinth in the 1910 translation of Al-Beruni's India (c. 1030 AD) p. 306 (with a diagram on the following page).

    By the White Sea, notably on the Solovetsky Islands, there have been preserved more than 30 stone labyrinths. The most remarkable monument is the Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island - a group of 13–14 stone labyrinths on 0.4 km2 area of one small island. These labyrinths are thought to be 2,000–3,000 years old.

    Today the magical labyrinth would represent this whole world as we know it. I don’t know about you but I have almost found my way out of the maze by fighting my own Minotaur beast of a self to reach a place of heaven called gnosis. Hopefully, the kings in charge of the labyrinth haven’t deemed us all unworthy, and marked for death by closing the exit.The labyrinth can be a powerful tool for inner enhancement and development. It is designed specifically for this purpose. When walking the labyrinth, we find our perspective constantly changing. Our vision and physical bodies are never facing the same direction for long. This is a technique to coax our inner knowing out from within.

    Further, the spiraling inward motion is a physical replication of our spiritual tendency to seek within the highest truths in order to find eternal freedom. When we are moving outward from the source, it is an action that we have made the divine connection and now we are expressing our completeness outwardly – essentially sharing our highest good with all around us.Secondary security in case of prison break. They wanted to make it hard to wake up their worst enemies. The system lords did not trust each other, so the Labyrinth was created to prevent any system lord from gaining access their worst enemies. Hades was entrusted to watch over it and knew that if he decided to take advantage of it, all System Lords would come down on him. Unfortunately that’s exactly what happened.Persephone was Hades’ Queen. She ruled over his kingdom while he was away, but was unable to hold on to it. As it collapsed, she hid in the prison ship to escape Hades’ enemies. She used the prison ship as her Palace towards the end because it was so easy to hide in. She brought along her lover, Daedalus, a young Go’auld subservient to Persephone with his own plans.The ship travels on what seems to be a series of random jumps from world to world. Daedalus set the ship to do this to escape Persephone’s enemies. But over time, it has been damaged by attacks from random raiders, other system lords that might have stumbled on it. So now the pattern Daedalus has set up is random and stuck. It must be repaired and the ship stabilized.The ship makes regular stops to pick up “prisoners” – the teleport run – and pick up supplies – teleport water and food stuffs from preprogrammed worlds Daedalus found rich of those resources.The Clans sent their worst political enemies, the strongest opponents to uninifcation, and their war criminals to the Labyrinth ship. They have also sent their harshest criminals and insane. All the clans believed that the sentence was worse then death and had no idea the truth behind the Temple of Persephone. There is a sampling of all the clans on the ship, surviving on the hydroponics bays they were able to acquire throughout the ship.

    It is important to note that walking the labyrinth (mentally or physically) is not intended to be overly challenging. There are no dead-ends with the labyrinth, only meandering waves of smooth lines designed to gently nudge us back to our destination.

    This is where labyrinths are often confused with mazes. Big difference. Mazes are designed to challenge intellect and strategic skills. Whereas the labyrinth is an exercise in soul development.